Type of Article:  Review 

Volume 9; Issue 5 (October 2021)

Page No.: 3992-4000

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijpr.2021.170

Necessity of an Exclusive Health Care Model for Individuals with Quintessential Epigenetic Efficiency

R. Vinodh Rajkumar.

Physiotherapist, Anthropologist & Gerontologist, Director – Prabhanjeet Fitness Research Institute OPC Private Limited, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Address for Correspondence: R. Vinodh Rajkumar, Physiotherapist, Anthropologist & Gerontologist, Director – Prabhanjeet Fitness Research Institute OPC Private Limited. Bangalore, Karnataka, India. E-Mail: dreamofkalam@rediffmail.com


Definition of health cannot be oversimplified. Understanding about health status of individuals should not be solely based on physiologic parameters examined in the resting state and comparing individual-specific health data with any established/obsolete statistical average because this approach could mislead people to anticipate better health without essential lifestyle interventions and modifications. Are we health-educating unhealthy people to curb their disease by adapting the lifestyle of healthy people? A healthy person could be abstaining from toxic substances, exercising regularly, consuming nutritious foods, sleeping adequately, reproducing naturally, excelling in sports, practicing spirituality, resisting disease developments/progressions, falling sick rarely every year, recuperating much faster even falls sick, ageing at slower pace and living longer. There is no miraculous medicine or therapy that could afford complete cure from the diseases unless unhealthy individuals incline to learn and adapt a healthy lifestyle. Unhealthy individuals, in this context, are those who have knowingly sabotaged their health despite being aware of the hazards of sedentariness, unstructured lifestyle, malnourishment, stress and ingesting toxic substances. Unhealthy people should not assume that they would return to health and sustain better health without comparing themselves with the qualities of healthy individuals. For instance, low back aches of people who cannot even activate their Erector Spinae to bend forward correctly are not the same as people who can bend forward correctly activating strong Erector Spinae while exercising with barbell or dumbbell. Of course, it may not be entirely possible to revitalize the chronically-diseased individuals but at least some of the health guidelines formulated on the basis of lifestyle of healthy individuals should be incorporated in the treatments and rehabilitations. The difference between healthy and unhealthy people is extremely vast which we have not yet acknowledged scientifically. Superior health-fitness excellence of healthy individuals is an expression of high epigenetic efficiency to favor Morbidity-Attenuated Life Years (MALYs). In contrast, Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) could be associated with different degrees of epigenetic inefficiency or epigenetic dysfunctions. MALYs belong to healthy persons and DALYs belong to unhealthy persons. DALYs are characterized by almost predictable disease/disability events but MALYs have been mysterious. The mysteries of MALYs can be solved by developing an exclusive health care model for healthy individuals and it would remain unsolved without the inclusion of Physiotherapists, Exercise Professionals and Dieticians.

Key words: Epigenetics, Exercise Tolerance, Health, DALYs, Spiritual intelligence, Fitness, Functional status, Aging, Physical Activity, Lifestyle, Sedentary, Co-morbidities, Kinanthropometry, Salutogenesis.


[1]. R.Vinodh Rajkumar. Gravitational Torque Deficiency Syndrome – A Prospective Clinical Terminology- Part 1, Int J Physiother Res. 2016; 4(5):1668-78.
[2]. Maffetone, P.B., Laursen, P.B. Athletes: Fit but Unhealthy?.Sports Med – Open 2, 24 2016.
[3]. Rothman KJ, Greenland S. Modern epidemiology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven, 1998.
[4]. Rippe JM. Lifestyle Medicine: The Health Promoting Power of Daily Habits and Practices. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2018;12(6):499-512.
[5]. González K, Fuentes J, Márquez JL. Physical Inactivity, Sedentary Behavior and Chronic Diseases. Korean J Fam Med. 2017;38(3):111-115.
[6]. Thyfault JP, Du M, Kraus WE, Levine JA, Booth FW. Physiology of sedentary behavior and its relationship to health outcomes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015 Jun;47(6):1301-5.
[7]. Age-Related DNA Methylation Changes: Potential Impact on Skeletal Muscle Aging in Humans. Front Physiol.2019; 10:996
[8]. Pal S, Tyler JK. Epigenetics and aging. Sci Adv. 2016;2(7):e1600584. Published 2016 Jul 29.
[9]. Anne Brunet, Shelley L. Berger, Epigenetics of Aging and Aging-related Disease, The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, Volume 69, Issue Suppl_1, June 2014, Pages S17–S20.
[10]. Lu Q, Qiu X, Hu N, Wen H, Su Y, Richardson BC. Epigenetics, disease, and therapeutic interventions. Ageing Res Rev. 2006 Nov;5(4):449-67.
[11]. Bowman RV, Yang IA, Semmler AB, Fong KM. Epigenetics of lung cancer. Respirology. 2006 Jul;11(4):355-65.
[12]. Epigenetic inheritance during the cell cycle. Probst AV, Dunleavy E, Almouzni G. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2009 Mar; 10(3):192-206.
[13]. Barrón-Cabrera E, Ramos-Lopez O, González-Becerra K, Riezu-Boj J, I, Milagro F, I, Martínez-López E, Martínez J, A: Epigenetic Modifications as Outcomes of Exercise Interventions Related to Specific Metabolic Alterations: A Systematic Review. Lifestyle Genomics 2019;12:25-44.
[14]. Alegría-Torres JA, Baccarelli A, Bollati V. Epigenetics and lifestyle. Epigenomics. 2011;3(3):267-277.
[15]. Kanherkar Riya R., Bhatia-Dey Naina, Csoka Antonei B. Epigenetics across the human lifespan. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 2014, Volume 2, 49.
[16]. Rodenhiser D, Mann M. Epigenetics and human disease: translating basic biology into clinical applications. CMAJ. 2006 Jan 31;174(3):341-8.
[17]. Implication of abnormal epigenetic patterns for human diseases. Santos-Rebouças CB, Pimentel MM. Eur J Hum Genet. 2007 Jan; 15(1):10-7.
[18]. Burman J, Sembiah S, Dasgupta A, Paul B, Pawar N, Roy A. Assessment of Poor Functional Status and its Predictors among the Elderly in a Rural Area of West Bengal. J Midlife Health. 2019 Jul-Sep;10(3):123-130.
[19]. Michelle E. Mlinac, Michelle C. Feng, Assessment of Activities of Daily Living, Self-Care, and Independence, Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, Volume 31, Issue 6, September 2016, Pages 506–516.
[20]. Prem Shankar Srivastava. Spiritual Intelligence: An Overview. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development. 2016; 3 (3); 224-227.
[21]. Sheehan B. Assessment scales in dementia. Ther Adv Neurol Disord. 2012;5(6):349-358.
[22]. Bauer ZA, De Jesus O, Bunin JL. Unconscious Patient. [Updated 2021 Feb 7]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan- Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538529/
[23]. Mehta AJ, Yeligar SM, Elon L, Brown LA, Guidot DM. Alcoholism causes alveolar macrophage zinc deficiency and immune dysfunction. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Sep 15; 188 (6): 716-23.
[24]. Qiu F, Liang CL, Liu H, Zeng YQ, Hou S, Huang S, Lai X, Dai Z. Impacts of cigarette smoking on immune responsiveness: Up and down or upside down? Oncotarget. 2017 Jan 3;8(1):268-284.
[25]. R.Vinodh Rajkumar. Foods Obstruct and Overcome Diseases (FOOD): The Missing Interdisciplinary and Transdisciplinary Public Health Art till Covid-19 Pandemic. Int J Physiother Res 2020;8(5):3586-3594.
[26]. R. Vinodh Rajkumar. Resisting Morbidity and Mortality (RMM): An Equitable Public Health. Int J Physiother Res 2020;8(6):3693-3705.
[27]. R.Vinodh Rajkumar. Breathing Rate/Rhythm Evaluation Ascertains Total Health (BREATH): The Pulmonary Panacea. Int J Physiother Res 2020; 8(5): 3609 – 3619.
[28]. R.Vinodh Rajkumar. Endomorphy dominance among non-athlete population in all the ranges of Body Mass Index. International Journal of Physiotherapy and Research 2015;3 (3):1068-1074.
[29]. R. Vinodh Rajkumar. Prevalence of Outward Deviation of Feet in Human Gait: A Non-participant Observation. Int J Physiother Res 2020;8(1):3378-3387.
[30]. R.Vinodh Rajkumar. Quantifying the Single Leg Balance using multiple dynamic postures on stable surface. Int J Physiother Res 2020;8(3):3462-70.
[31]. R.Vinodh Rajkumar. Epidemiological Intersection: The Revelation of Covid – 19 Pandemic. Int J Physiother Res 2020;8(2):3438-42.
[32]. Lindström B, Eriksson M. Salutogenesis. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2005;59:440-442.

Cite this article: R. Vinodh Rajkumar.  Necessity of an Exclusive Health Care Model for Individuals with Quintessential Epigenetic Efficiency. Int J Physiother Res 2021;9(5):3992-4000. DOI: 10.16965/ijpr.2021.170