Type of Article:  Original Research

Volume 12; Issue 1 (February 2024)

Page No.: 4670-4674

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijpr.2024.102

Evaluation of Scapular Dynamics in Sports Trainees

Nallagatla Venkateshwarlu *1, Enrico Maria Staderini 2, Naveen Kumar Balne 3

*1 Chief Physiotherapist, Sports Authority of Andhra Pradesh, Head Quarters, IGMC Stadium, Andhra Pradesh, India.

2 Tor Vergata University of Rome, Italy.

3 Faculty of Physiotherapy, Nizam’s Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Corresponding Author: Dr. Nallagatla Venkateshwarlu, MPT sports, Chief Physiotherapist, Sports Authority of Andhra Pradesh, Head Quarters, IGMC Stadium, Andhra Pradesh, India. E-Mail: nallagatla777@gmail.com


Background: The scapula provides stability and mobility for efficient upper-limb movement. Optimal scapular kinematics are essential for efficient force generation and injury prevention. Sports trainees, particularly those involved in sports requiring repetitive or high-intensity shoulder movements, are susceptible to injuries and performance limitations if associated with aberrant scapular mechanics. Understanding the intricacies of scapular dynamics is essential for designing tailored training interventions that enhance athletic performance.

Rationale and objectives: Previous research has emphasized the need for sports-specific training protocols. The measurement of scapular rotation has gained significant attention. Evaluating asymmetries in scapular dynamics across various sports trainee populations is a step forward for the need for tailored interventions and injury prevention strategies in preventing injury and planning better exercise programs. The study uses a PALM meter for the measurement of scapular rotation.

Methodology:  40 Subjects 19 to 24 years old from the sports authority of Andhra Pradesh, India, were studied after obtaining written informed consent. Scapular rotation measured in a neutral and with hands on the hip position. Root of the scapula (RSS), inferior angle of the scapula (IAS), and spinous processes (Sp) of C7 to T8 are taken as the anatomical landmarks. Measurements of scapular position taken in two arm positions: shoulder neutral, hands on hip. A right-angle triangle created by dropping a perpendicular line from the scapula’s root to intersect the horizontal line between the scapula’s inferior angle and the thoracic spine’s closest spinous process (IAS-Sp). The hypotenuse represents the distance IAS to RSS, while the side opposite the angle θ is the distance IAS-Sp minus RSS-Sp. A positive result indicates upward scapular rotation, while a negative result indicates downward scapular rotation.

Results and Conclusion: This cross-sectional study revealed variations in scapular rotation and the distances from spinous processes in the scapular position in neutral and hands-on Hip positions from right to left and male to female. Further studies are required to understand scapular rotation variations concerning various sports involving overhead activity, heavy weight lifting, endurance sports and anatomical variations, muscle activation patterns, or task demands.

Keywords: scapular rotation, sports trainees, shoulder movements, scapular mechanics, athletic performance.


[1]. Da Costa, B. R., Armijo-Olivo, S., Gadotti, I., Warren, S., Reid, D. C., & Magee, D. J. Reliability of scapular positioning measurement procedure using the palpation meter (PALM). Physiotherapy, 2010;96(1): 59–67.
[2]. Gross, D. J., Golijanin, P., Dumont, G. D., Parada, S. A., Vopat, B. G., Reinert, S. E., Romeo, A. A., & Provencher, C. M. T. The effect of sagittal rotation of the glenoid on axial glenoid width and glenoid version in computed tomography scan imaging. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 2016:25(1):61–68.
[3]. Mackenzie, T. A., & Herrington, L. Sport Specific Adaptation in Scapular Upward Rotation in Elite Golfers. Journal of Athletic Enhancement, 2015;04(05).
[4]. Michael P Johnson, Philip W McClure, & Andrew R. Karduna. New Method to Assess Scapular Upward Rotation in Subjects With Shoulder Pathology. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 2001;31(2):81–89.
[5]. Paine, R., & Voight, M. L. THE ROLE OF THE SCAPULA. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 2013;8(5):617.
[6]. Petrone, M. R., Guinn, J., Reddin, A., Sutlive, T. G., Flynn, T. W., & Garber, M. P. The accuracy of the Palpation Meter (PALM) for measuring pelvic crest height difference and leg length discrepancy. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 2003;33(6):319–325. https://doi.org/10.2519/JOSPT.2003.33.6.319
[7]. Sanchez, H. M., & de Morais Sanchez, E. G. Scapular dyskinesis: biomechanics, evaluation and treatment. International Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Journal, 2018;3(6). https://doi.org/10.15406/IPMRJ.2018.03.00157
[8]. Seth, A., Matias, R., Veloso, A. P., & Delp, S. L. A Biomechanical Model of the Scapulothoracic Joint to Accurately Capture Scapular Kinematics during Shoulder Movements. PLOS ONE, 2016;11(1): e0141028.

Cite this article: Nallagatla Venkateshwarlu, Enrico Maria Staderini, Naveen Kumar Balne. Evaluation of Scapular Dynamics in Sports Trainees. Int J Physiother Res 2024;12(1):4670-4674. DOI: 10.16965/ijpr.2024.102