International Journal of Anatomy and Research

Welcome to International Journal of Anatomy and Research




Type of Article: Original Research

Year: 2016 | Volume 4 | Issue 1 | Page No. 1810-1818

Date of Publication: 31-01-2016



M. Yesender *1, Asra Anjum 2, S. Saritha 3, B. Sadananda Rao 4, T.V. Ramani 5, Peter Ericson 6.

*1 Associate professor,Department of Anatomy, KAMSRC, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
2 Lecturer,Department of Anatomy, KAMSRC, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
3 Professor & HOD,Department of Anatomy, KAMSRC, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
4 Associate professor,Department of Anatomy, KAMSRC, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
5 Assistant professor,Department of Anatomy, KAMSRC, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
6 Assistant professor,Department of Anatomy, KAMSRC, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Address: Dr. M. Yesender, Associate professor,Department of Anatomy, KAMSRC, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.


Introduction: Congenital limb defects are rare fetal anomalies which occur in approximately 6 per 10,000 live births with 3.6 per 10,000 affecting the upperlimbs and 1.1 per 10,000 affecting the lower limbs. These defects are often associated with craniofacial, cardiac and genitourinary systems. The limb defects may be represented as partial absence of one or more extremity is Meromelia, where in complete absence of one or more extremities isAmelia and rudimentary hands and feet are attached to trunk with long bones absent is Phocomelia.The limb defects may be longitudinal deficiencies like absence of radius or ulna and transverse deficiencies like Phocomelia.The Major causes of limb malformations are genetic programming and intra-uterine disruption to development.
Aim: The present work aims to provide the concise summary of common congenital limb anomalies on the basis of morphology, etiology and genetics.
Materials and Methods: The retrospective study includes 200 fetuses from the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and live adults from the OPD of Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Secunderabad, for a period of two years.
Conclusion: This paper illustrates the study of complex limb defects adopted in the human series. The intimate knowledge of the genes and environmental factors govern the limb pattern formation in humans and will elucidate the interactions underlying the normal and pathological development.
KEY WORDS: Limb defects, Amelia, Phocomelia, Meromelia, Lobster claw hand.


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M. Yesender, Asra Anjum, S. Saritha, B. Sadananda Rao, T.V. Ramani, Peter Ericson. LIMB DEFECTS: A SPECTRUM OF CORRELATED STUDY. Int J Anat Res 2016;4(1):1810-1818. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2015.340




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