Type of Article:  Original Research

Volume 10; Issue 1 (March 2022)

Page No.: 8206-8215

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2021.193

Morphological Variations of Sacrum in Adult Indian Population

Sandeep Saluja 1, Sneh Agarwal 2, Anita Tuli 3, Shashi Raheja 4, Sarika Rachel Tigga 5.

1 Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, ESIC Medical College & Hospital, Alwar, Rajasthan, India.

2 Director Professor & Head, Department of Anatomy, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Hospitals, New Delhi, India.

3 Consultant, Department of Anatomy, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India.

4 Professor & Head, Department of Anatomy, Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar Medical College & Hospital, Delhi, India.

*5 Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, ESIC Medical College & Hospital, Alwar, Rajasthan, India.

Corresponding Author: Dr Sarika Rachel Tigga, Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Affiliation address: ESIC Medical College & Hospital, Alwar, Rajasthan, India-301030 Phone: 9891466140 E-Mail: sarika.rachel@gmail.com   


Introduction: The sacrum is considered as a highly variable bone. Several morphological variations have been documented which exhibit differences in the frequency of occurrence and morphological characteristics in various study populations. Variant anatomy of the sacrum may be associated with backache, enuresis, neurological anomalies of the lower limb and functional disorders of lower urinary tract.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe morphological variations of sacrum in Indian population and enable comparison with different populations.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 108 dry adult human sacra and morphological characteristics and variations were noted.

Results: Sacral skewness was observed in 7.4% sacra with right sided skewness being predominant. The presence of accessory auricular surface (AAS) was noted in 13% sacra which was at the level of S3 vertebra in most sacra. Spina bifida (SB) was observed in 11.1% sacra and it was most commonly located at S1 vertebral level. Furthermore, the lumbo-sacral transitional vertebra (TV) was documented in 10.2% sacra.

Conclusions: Sacrum displays numerous variations in Indian population such as skewness, AAS, SB and TV. Thorough knowledge of morphological characteristics and variations of sacrum is vital and should be contemplated during diagnosis and treatment of sacrum-related diseases.

Key words: Accessory auricular surface, Spina bifida, Transitional vertebra, Sacral skewness, Variations.


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Cite this article: Sandeep Saluja, Sneh Agarwal, Anita Tuli, Shashi Raheja, Sarika Rachel Tigga. Morphological Variations of Sacrum in Adult Indian Population. Int J Anat Res 2022;10(1):8230-8237. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2021.193