Type of Article:  Original Research

Volume 9; Issue 1 (January 2021)

Page No.: 7844-7850

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2020.233

A cadaveric study of brachial artery and its variations with its ontogenic basis: An Anatomical Perspective

Monika Lalit *1, Sanjay Piplani 2.

1 Professor, Department of Anatomy, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences & Research (SGRDIMS&R), Amritsar, Punjab, India.

2 Professor, Department of Pathology, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences & Research (SGRDIMS&R), Amritsar, Punjab, India.

Corresponding author: Dr. Monika lalit, Professor, Department of Anatomy, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences & Research (SGRDIMS&R), Amritsar, Punjab, India. Ph No.- 9814325454 E-Mail: monika.lalit@yahoo.com


Introduction: Conventional knowledge of the brachial artery, the principal artery of the upper limb & its branches has played a major role in vascular surgeries. Literature along with various cadaveric & clinical studies suggest that brachial artery vary widely in origin, course and branching pattern. The great variability of this arterial pattern may be attributed to the failure of regression of some paths of embryonic arterial trunks. Anatomical knowledge of this principal artery and its variations has many clinical implications especially in surgeries related to orthopedic and vascular re-constructive procedures.

Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 56 upper limbs of different age group and sex (19 Male and 9 Female) The brachial arteries were identified and branching pattern and relations of the brachial artery with brachial plexus in arm was observed and presence or absence of variations were documented.

Results: Out of 56 upper limbs studies, 53 (94.64%) limbs showed normal morphological pattern of brachial artery, 3 (5.35%) limbs showed superficial brachial artery, 1 limb (1.78%) showed tortuous and SBA with trifurcation into radial artery, ulnar artery and common interosseous artery in the cubital fossa.

Conclusion: The study of Brachial artery and variation in its course and branching pattern is clinically important for surgeons, ortho-paedicians operating on the supracondylar fracture of humerus and radiologists performing angiographic studies on the upper limb.

Key words: Common Interosseous Artery, Median Nerve, Superficial Brachial Artery, Trifurcation, Ulnar Artery.


[1]. Standring S, Borely NR, Collins P, Crossman AR, Gatzoulis MA, Herly JC, et al. Gray’s Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice. Upper arm. 40th Ed, London: Elsevier Ltd; 2008;Pp:827-836.
[2]. Williams PL, Bannister LH, Berry MM, Collins P, Dyson M, Dussek JE, Ferguson MWJ. Gray’s Anatomy In: Arteries of the limbs & Cardiovascular System. Gabella, G. Edr. 38th Edn. Churchill Livingstone, New York: 1999;Pp:1537-44.
[3]. Singh H, Gupta N, Bargotra RN, Singh NP. Higher bifurcation of brachial artery with superficial course of radial artery in forearm: case report. JK Science. January-March 2010;12(1);39-40.
[4]. Holinshed W H. Anatomy for surgeons: vol.3 (The Back And Limbs). Third Edition, Philadelphia, Harper & Row 1982;Pp:366.
[5]. Hazlett JW. Superficial ulnar artery with reference to accidental intra-arterial injection. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1948;61:289-93.
[6]. Pabst R and Lippert H. Beiderseitiges vorkommen von A. brachialis superficialis , Ulnaris superficialis and A. mediana . Anatomischer Anzieger 1968;123:223-226.
[7]. Jurjus A, Sfeir R and Bezirdjian R. Unusual variation of arterial pattern of the human upper limb. Anat Rec.1986;215:82-83.
[8]. Bazemore E, Mann JT. Problems and complications of the transradial Approach for Coronary Interventions: A review. J Invasive Cardiol 2005 Mar;17(3):156-9.
[9]. Hunq YC, Yen HL, Vincent-wu, I-Jung Tsai, Dunwu K, Juey JH.Nephrology dialysis transplantation. Oxford journal of medicine. 2005; 20(11):2579-80.
[10]. Romans GJ. Cunningham’s Textbook of Anatomy. In: The Blood Vascular System. Arteries of the upper limb. Walls, E.W. Edr. 10th Edn. Oxford University Press, New York: 1964;Pp: 885-893.
[11]. Uglietta JP, Kadir S. Angiographic study of variant arterial anatomy of the upper extremities. Cardiovasc Int Radiol 1989;12:145-8.
[12]. Rodriguez-Niedenführ M, Vazquez T, Nearn L, Ferreira B, Parkin I, Sanúdo JR.Variations of the arterial pattern in the upper limb revisited: a morphological and statistical study, with a review of the literature. J Anat 2001;199:547–66.
[13]. Patnaik VVG, Kalsey G, Rajan KS. Branching pattern of brachial artery-A Morphological Study. J Anat. Soc India 2002;51:176-86.
[14]. Murugapermal G and MelaniRajendran S. Study of trifurcation of brachial artery. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 2014;3(9):897-901
[15]. Shivanal U, Gowda M S T. A study of variations in brachial artery and its branching pattern. Int J Res Med Sci 2015;3(6):1392-1396
[16]. Jayasree C, Reddy CK. A Cadaveric study on variations in brachial artery – An Anatomical Perspective. Perspectives in Medical Research 2017;5(2):29-32.
[17]. Adachi B. Arteriensystem der Japaner. Kyoto, Verlag der Kaiserlich-Japanischen Universitatzu Kyoto 1928;205–210.
[18]. Singla RK and Lalit M. Superficial Brachial Artery with a High Origin of ProfundaBrachii and Common Interosseous Artery: A Case Report. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 2011;5(3):628-630
[19]. Keen JA. A study of arterial variations in limbs with special reference to symmetry of vascular patterns. Am J Anat 1961;108:245-261.
[20]. Vare A M and Bansal P C. A case of anomalous brachial artery and other associated vascular anomalies in a single upper limb. J Anat Soc Ind 1969;18(2):50-53.
[21]. Poirier P. Traite de Anatomie Humans Vol. II Battaille & Co. Paris. 1886;Pp:756.
[22]. Linell EA. The distribution of the nerves in upper limb with reference to variability & their clinical significance. Journal of Anatomy. 1921;55:79.
[23]. Kapur V, Suri RK, Manik P and Dhir V. Surgical anatomy of median nerve. Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 2000;49(1):92.
[24]. Yang HJ, Gil YC, Jung WS, Lee HY. Variations of the superficial brachial artery in Korean cadavers. J Korean Med Sci 2008;23:884–887.
[25]. Kachlik D, Konarik M, Baca V. Vascular patterns of upper limb: an anatomical study with accent on superficial brachial artery. Bosn J Basic Med Sci 2011;11(1):4–10.
[26]. Nakatani T, Tanaka S, Mizukami S, Shiraishi Y, Nakamura T. The superficial ulnar artery originating from the axillary artery. Ann Anat 1996;178:277–9.
[27]. Kaur N, Patnaik VVG, Singla RK. Bilateral superficial brachial artery – a case report IJAV 2011;4:207–210.
[28]. Alfaouri-Kornieieva M. Persistent superϐicial brachial artery in humans. OA Case Reports 2013;2(5):49.
[29]. Singer E. Embryological patterns persisting in arteries of the arm. Anat Rec 1933;55:406-413.
[30]. Baeza RA, Nebot J, Ferreira B, Reina F, Perez J, Saundo J.R. et al. An Anatomical study and ontogenic explanation of 23 cases with variations in main pattern of brachioantebrachial arteries. J Anat 1995;187(2):473-479.
[31]. Huber GC. Piersol’s Human Anatomy. In: The Vascular system. 9th Edn. Vol. I J.B. Lippincott. Co. Philedelphia 1930;Pp:767-791.)
[32]. Lockhardt RD, Hamilton GF. and Fufe FW. Anatomy of the human Body In: Vascular System- Systemic arteries. Faber & Faber Ltd.; London 1959;Pp:612-619.
[33]. Bilodi AK, Sanikop MB. Variations in termination of brachial artery – a case report. Kathmandu Univ Med J 2004;2(1):49-51.
[34]. Vollala VR, Nagabhooshana S, Bhat S M. Trifurcation of brachial artery with variant course of radial artery: Rareobservation. Anat. Sci. Int 2008;83:307 309.
[35]. Patnaik VVG, Kalsey G, SinglaRajan. Trifurcation of Brachial artery-A case Report- Journal of Anatomical Society of India. 2001;50(2):163-165.
[36]. Malcic-Gurbuz J, Gurunluogl R, Ozdogmus O, Yalin, Aymelek A. Unique case of trifurcation of the brachial artery: its clinical significance. Clinic Anat 2002;15(3):224-7.
[37]. Arey LB. Developmental Anatomy. In: Development of the arteries. 6th Edition. W.B Saunders Co, Philadelphia; 1957;Pp:375-377.
[38]. Rodriguez-Niedenführ M, Vazquez T, Parkin IG, Sanudo JR. Arterial patterns of the human upper limb: update of anatomical variations and embryological development. Eur J Anat 2003;7:21-8.
[39]. Smith MT. The limb arteries of primates. J Anat Physiol 1910;45:23-64.

Cite this article: Monika Lalit, Sanjay Piplani. A cadaveric study of brachial artery and its variations with its ontogenic basis: An Anatomical Perspective. Int J Anat Res 2021;9(1):7844-7850. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2020.233