Type of Article:  Original Research

Volume 7; Issue 3.2 (August 2019)

Page No.: 6851-6858

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2019.241


Betty Anna Jose *1, Varsha Mokhasi 2, S A Subramani 3, M Shashirekha 4.

*1 Associate Professor in Anatomy, Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research centre, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

2 Professor in Anatomy, Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research centre, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

3 Professor in Plastic Surgery, Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research centre, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

4 Professor in Anatomy, Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research centre, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Address for Correspondence: Dr Betty Anna Jose, Associate Professor in Anatomy,  Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research centre, Bangalore-560066, Karnataka, India. contact no. 9845874881 E-Mail: bettyannacj@gmail.com


Background: The multifactorial etiology of clefts includes both genetic  and environmental factors. Many studies were conducted to identify the genetic basis of the etiology of clefts and effect of  maternal folic acid intake in reducing the risk of clefts.. Not many studies conducted about other environmental factors causing clefts. The present study is to find out the non-genetic factors associated with the nonsyndromic  clefts. The maternal periconceptional  intake of  folic acid, family history, parental age, socioeconomic status, parental alcoholism and smoking,  and parental occupational exposure are the factors included in the study.

Materials and methods: The study group comprised 400 subjects with 200 Nonsyndromic cleft cases and 200 healthy controls from  the South Indian population. The data was collected in a  detailed questionnaire by direct interview and  analyzed the data using SPSS version 21. Logistic regression model was used to measure the odds ratio(OR)  for the independent variables and Chi- square analysis was   performed to find out the significance.

Results: The family history of clefts was found in 10.6% cleft cases (p value= 0.001).  The risk of cleft was increased in cases with no maternal folic acid intake in their first trimester of pregnancy (p value= 0.001).  Parental age more than 35 years (p value= 0.004)  and low maternal education (p value= 0.001) were also found as the risk factors to cleft. Low socioeconomic background was another risk factor (p value= 0.001).  Parental occupational exposure in terms of pestcidal exposure  was found significant but not the parental medication and smoking.

Conclusion: Maternal consumption of folic acid and multivitamins during the periconceptional  period to be assured to  prevent the occurrence of oral clefts. Family history of cleft  increases the risk of cleft and the risk is further increased when cleft is present in parents or siblings. And maternal age more than 35 years is  found more significant than the paternal age . Consanguinity showed 4 fold increase in clefts. Maternal diet is a prime factor as it is directly related to folic acid and vitamin supplementation apart from the socioeconomic status of family.

Key words: Cleft Lip, Cleft Lip Palate, Cleft  Palate, Socioeconomic Status, Non syndromic, Cleft lip/palate.


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Cite this article: Betty Anna Jose, Varsha Mokhasi, S A Subramani, M Shashirekha. NON-GENETIC FACTORS CONTRIBUTE TO THE INCIDENCE OF NON SYNDROMIC CLEFTS IN THE CRANIOFACIAL REGION. Int J Anat Res 2019;7(3.2):6851-6858. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2019.241