Type of Article:  Original Research

Volume 7; Issue 3.1 (July 2019)

Page No.: 6786-6789

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2019.226


Siva Sree Ranga. M.K *1, Vasantha Mallika. M.C 2.

*1 Associate Professor, Department of  Anatomy, Sree Mookambika Institute of Medical Sciences, Kulasekharam, South India.

2 Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Sree Mookambika Institute of Medical Sciences, Kulasekharam, South India.

Corresponding Author: Dr. M K Siva Sree Ranga, Siva Sree Sadanam, Vellarada, Thiruvananthapuram – 695 505, Kerala, India. Phone: +91-9447696069. E-Mail: dr.sivasreeranga@gmail.com


Introduction: The umbilical cord or Funis  forms the connecting link between the fetus and the placenta. Through umbilical cord the fetal blood flows to and from the placenta providing nutrition, gas exchange, waste removal, endocrine function and immune support to the developing fetus. The umbilical cord extends from the fetal umbilicus to the fetal surface of the placenta. Being organs of vital importance for continuation of pregnancy, the placenta and umbilical cord have evolved great interest among the Anatomists, Embryologists, Pathologists and Obstetricians.

Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 695 umbilical cords attached to placentae from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, collected soon after delivery. The morphology of the umbilical cords attached to placenta were studied. Fresh specimens of umbilical cord were examined for attachment to the placenta, cord length, diameter, number of vessels, diameter of vessels, coiling and knotted appearance. Neonatal details within 24 hours after delivery were recorded.

Results:  Average cord length was 46.04cm (SD 11.8cm) with the shortest cord being 5.8cm and the longest 78.50cm. Majority of the umbilical cords (71.94%) had eccentric attachment to the placentae; (139) 20% had central and 53(7.63%) had marginal and 3(0.43%) had velamentous attachments .  Occurrence of furcate insertion of umbilical cord vessels into the placenta was 28% and non-furcate insertion was 501(72%). Morphological variations of umbilical cord showed statistically significant association with maternal Diabetes mellitus, Preeclampsia, Antepartum haemorrhage, twin pregnancy and foetal Intra Uterine Growth Retardation.

Conclusion: The study observed that, the morphological variations of umbilical cord  show significant effects on maternal and foetal conditions.  These quantitative findings may provide baseline information for further investigations.

Key words: Umbilical cord, Placenta, Morphology, Variations.


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Cite this article: Siva Sree Ranga. M.K, Vasantha Mallika. M.C. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF UMBILICAL CORD IN HUMAN PLACENTA. Int J Anat Res 2019;7(3.1):6786-6789. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2019.226