Type of Article:  Original Research

Volume 7; Issue 3.1 (July 2019)

Page No.: 6767-6774

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2019.220


Ruthwik B S 1, Padmalatha K *2, Shyam Sunder B V 3.

1 Final year MBBS Student, ESIC Medical College & PGIMSR, Rajajinagar, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

*2 Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy,ESIC Medical College & PGIMSR, Rajajinagar, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

3 Intern, ESIC Medical College & PGIMSR, Rajajinagar, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Address for Corresepondence: Dr Padmalatha K, Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, ESIC Medical College & PGIMSR, Rajajinagar, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. E-Mail: padduanat@gmail.com


Background: A Nutrient Foramen [NF] or vascular channel is a small tunnel in cortex of long bones which is a pathway for the entry of nutrient artery. Nutrient artery has pivotal contribution of blood supply to long bones and plays a major role in Orthopaedic Surgical procedures like bone transplantation, bone grafting thus avoiding avascular necrosis of fractured bones

Aims: To determine morphological parameters (variation in number, location, direction) and morphometric parameters (variation in size and foraminal index [FI] ) of nutrient foramina in Humeri.

Materials and methods: Present study was conducted on a total of 80 dried human adult Humeri of either sexes or sides which were obtained from fellow students and Department of Anatomy of ESIC medical college & PGIMSR, Bangalore. Infantometer was used to calculate length of humeri, hand held lens was used to detect nutrient foramen under adequate illumination. Hypodermic needles [18G to 26G, where G is gauge], were used to measure the size of NF. Foraminal index was also calculated.

Results: In our study mean length of humerus was 29.95cm.FI ranged from 39.34 -81.02.Majority (62.50%) of humeri have one NF, (28.75%) have two NF,(7.5%) with three nutrient foramina and (1.25%) had no NF. Majority of NF (43.43%) were present on antero-medial surface, (37.37%) on medial border, (14.14%) on posterior surface, (2.02%) on both anterolateral surface and anterior border, 1.01% in lateral border.  (90.09%) of NF were located in Zone II (middle third), (8.08%) in Zone III (lower third) and (1.01%) in zone I (Upper third). Majority (41.41%) were of large gauge, (34.34%) of medium gauge and (24.24%) of small gauge. All NF directed towards distal end of humerus.

Conclusion: For healing of fractures, blood supply plays a vital role.  Awareness about variations in NF is important because damage to nutrient artery due to any cause like trauma, road traffic accidents will cause inadequate blood supply .Thus vascular and bone transplant surgeons can reconstruct damaged artery and avoid ischemia of graft during open reduction procedures and transplant surgeries.

KEY WORDS: Nutrient foramen, Nutrient artery, Humerus, Diaphysis.


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Cite this article: Ruthwik B S, Padmalatha K, Shyam Sunder B V. A STUDY ON NUTRIENT FORAMEN OF HUMERI AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE. Int J Anat Res 2019;7(3.1):6767-6774. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2019.220