Type of Article:  Original Research

Volume 7; Issue 2.2 (May 2019)

Page No.: 6575-6580

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2019.173


Geethanjali. B.S *1, Jayanthi V 2, Kavimani 3, Varsha Mokhasi 4, Rajini. T 5, Mohan kumar. H 6.

*1 Associate professor, Department of Anatomy, East point college of medical science & research centre, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

2 Professor & Dean, Department of anatomy, Sapthagiri medical college & research centre, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

3 Professor, Department of Anatomy, Balagi medical college, Tamil Nadu, India.

4 Professor  & HOD, Department of Anatomy, Vydehi medical college & research centre, Bangalore Karnataka, India.

5 Professor, Department of Anatomy, Vydehi medical college & research centre, Bangalore Karnataka, India.

6 Professor, Department of ophthalmology, Sri Devaraj Urs medical college, Kolar, Karnataka, India.

Corresponging Author: Dr.Geethanjali. B.S, Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, East point college of medical science & research centre, Bangalore-560071, Karnataka, India. Phone number: 9739444178 E-Mail: geethamohan76@gmail.com


Introduction: The unimpeded forward flow of blood across the mitral orifice depends upon a coordinated interaction between the mitral annulus, leaflets, chordae tendinae & papillary muscle. Knowledge about the normal anatomy of mitral valve annular morphometry is important for assessing the valve pathologies and also in valve replacement surgery for a deceased valve

Materials and methods: 50 heart of embalmed adult human cadaver of both sex aged between 20-70 years were taken from the department of anatomy, VIMS & RC. Parameters measured were annular diameter, circumference, area of mitral valve by using vernier caliper, measuring scale, cotton thread & magnifying lens.

Results: In the present study mean value of mitral valve were, circumference of mitral valve was 8.19±1.01cm in males, 7.76±0.99 cms in females, diameter was 3.10±0.40 cm in males & 3.26±0.48 cm in females, area of mitral valve was 5.45±1.34 cm2   in males & 4.89±1.20 cm2 in females. All the parameters of mitral valve annulus like circumference, diameter & area of valve was more in males except in females the diameter was more. There was no significant difference between male & female values of mitral valve annulus.

Conclusion: Knowledge of normal measurements of the component parts of the mitral valve is essential for the surgeon during operation to assess the exact mechanical reason for valve insufficiency & in development & manufacture of prostheses for valvuloplasty.

Key words: Mitral Valve, Annulus, Bioprosthesis, Valve Replacement.


  1. Susan Standring, Neil R Borley, Patricia Collins, Alan R Crossman, Michael A Gatzoulis, Jeremiah C Healy, et al. Gray’s Anatomy, The Anatomical basis of clinical   40th ed. Elseiver: Churchill Livingstone; 2008;970-972.
  2. Louis A. Du Plessis and Paul Marchand. The Anatomy of the mitral valve and its associated structures. Thorax 1964;19:221-227.
  3. Shamim Akthar Cheema, Anjum Jalal, Nazeem Feroze, Jawad Sajid Khan. Dimensions of Mitral Valve of Normal Human Hearts in Pakistani Subjects. Pakistan Heart Journal 1996;29:32-36.
  4. Krishnaiah M, Mrudula C. Morphometric Study of Mitral Valve Orifice an Echocardiographic Study. International Journal Of Pharma and Biosciences 2011;2:181-187.
  5. Tei C, Pilgrim JP, Shah PM, Ormiston JA, Wong M. The tricuspid valve annulus: study of size and motion in normal subjects and in patients with tricuspid regurgitation. Circulation 1982;66:665-71.
  6. Ilankathir S. A Cadaveric Study on Adult Human Heart Valve Annular Circumference and Its Clinical Significance. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences 2015;14:60-64.
  7. Howard S Richter. Mitral valve Area: Measurement soon Catheterization: Report of a Case. Circulatuion 1963;28:451-454.
  8. Brock RC. The surgical and pathological anatomy of the mitral valve. Br Heart J 1952;14:489-513.
  9. Rusted IE, Schiefley CH, Edwards JH, Studies of the mitral valve 1. Anatomic features of the normal mitral valve and associated structures. Circulation 1952;6:825-31.
  10. Chiechi MA, Lee WM and Thompson R. Functional anatomy of the normal mitral valve. Journal of thoracic surgery. 1956;32(3):378-98.
  11. Mc Alpine WA. The Mitral Valve, In: Heart and Coronary Arteries. Springer, New York 1975;52-56.
  12. Silvermen ME, Hurts JW. The mitral complex, interaction of anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the mitral annulus, mitral valve leaflets, chordae tendinae, and papillary    American heart Journal 1968;76(3):399-418.
  13. Ranganathan N, Lam JHC, Wigle E.D. Morphology of the human mitral valve II. The valve leaflets circulation 1970;41:459-67.
  14. Bulkley BH, Roberts W.C. Dilatation of the mitral annulus: a rare cause of mitral regurgitation. Am J Med 1975;59:457-63.
  15. Carpentier A, Guerinon J, Deloche A, Fabiani JN, Relland J. Pathology of the mitral valve. In: Kalmanson D editors. The mitral valve. London: Edward Arnold1976;65–77.
  16. Ormiston J.A., Shah P.M. Tei C, and Wong M et al. Size and motion of the mitral valve annulus in man: 1. A bio-dimensional echocardiographic method and findings in normal subjects. Circulation 1981;64:113.
  17. Datta AK, Mukherjee MM, Ghosh S. Morphology and Morphometry of the mitral valve in normal human heart. Indian Heart Journal 1984;36:6.
  18. Westaby S, Karp RB, Blackstone EH, Bishop SP. Adult human valve dimensions and their surgical significance. Am J Cardiol. 1984;53(4):552-6.
  19. Gerda L. Van Rijk – Zwikker MD, Ben J. Delemarre, M.D., and Hars A. Huysmans M.D. Mitral valve anatomy & Morphology:Relevance to mitral valve replacement & valve reconstruction. J Card Surg 1994;9:255-261.
  20. Kouji Chida, Shin-ichiro ohkawa,chizuko watanabe, hiroyuki shimada, kohichiro ohtsubo, Masaya sugiura. A morphological study of normally ageing heart. Cardiovasc Pathol 1994;3(1):1-7.
  21. Sakai T, Okita Y, Ueda Y, Tahata T, Ogino H, Matsuyama K, Miki S. Distance between mitral anulus and papillary muscles: anatomic study in normal human hearts. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 1999;118(4):636-41.
  22. Andrade NMM, Tinois E, Vieira, RW, Braile DM, Petrucci Junior O, Oliveira PPMD, Silveira Filho LD. Coefficient of proportions of the atrioventricular valves- An anatomical study of valvular segments of normal individuals. Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 2005;20(3):255-260.
  23. Patil D, Mehta C, Prajapati P. Morphology of Mitral valve in Human cadavers. Internet Journal of Cardiology 2009;7:2.
  24. Gupta C, Shetti VR, Manju BVM. Dimensions of the human adult mitral valve in the embalmed cadaver. J.Morphol.Sci 2013;30:6-10.
  25. Senthil kumar B, Anand A. morphometric study of mitral valve in human hearts – a comparative anatomical study. int j pharm bio sci 2013;4(4):105–110
  26. Kapil Amgain, Sujit Kumar Thakur, Rajendrakumar Dundappa Virupaxi, Daksha Dixit, Suresh Pitambarappa Desai, Mohan Gan. Mitral valve size measurement in North Karnataka by using cardiac sizer: A cadaveric study. Arch Med Health Sci 2013;1:105-8.
  27. Deopujari R, Sinha U, Athavale S A. Anatomy of left atrioventricular valve (mitral valve) leaflets in adult Indian cadavers. Int. J. Morphol2013;31(4):1276-1281.
  28. Kibria GM. The Morphometric Measurements of the Gross Structural Changes of Mitral Valve in Valvular Stenosis With or Without Regurgitation. Faridpur Med. Coll. J. 2014;9(1):07-11
  29. Mishra PP, Rao MP, Paranjape V, Kulkarni JP. Morphometry of Mitral valve. Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil University. 2014;7(5):625-630.
  30. Charanya N, Rajathi G, Vishali N. Morphological And Morphometrical Analysis Of Mitral Valve Annulus Of Heart In Human Adult Cadavers International Journal of Anatomy and Research. Int J Anat Res 2017;5:4405-09.
  31. Gunal SA, Farooqui MS, Wabale RN. Study of Mitral Valve in Human Cadaveric Hearts. Heart views 2012;13(4):132–135.
  32. Sriambika K, Virender Kumar Nim, Nutan Nalini Bage. Morphological And Morphometric Study Of Mitral Valve With Reference To Anatomical Variability In South Indian Subjects. Int J Anat Res 2018;6(4.3):5994-97.
  33. Hamilton DJ. Effect of Chronic Disease of the Valves of the Heart upon the Sound Orifices, the Cavities and the Walls. J Anat Physiol 1888;23(1):40–68.
  34. Bezerra AJC, DiDiO LJA, Prates JC. Variations of the area and shape of the left atrioventricular valve and its cusps and leaflets. Surg Radiol Anat 1994;16:277-280.

Cite this article: Geethanjali. B.S, Jayanthi V, Kavimani, Varsha Mokhasi, Rajini. T, Mohan kumar. H. THE ANATOMICAL STUDY OF MITRAL VALVE ANNULUS IN THE HUMAN CADAVERIC HEARTS FOR BIOPROSTHESIS. Int J Anat Res 2019;7(2.2):6575-6580. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2019.173