Type of Article:  Original

Volume 7; Issue 2.1 (April 2019)

Page No.: 6336-6340b

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2019.109


Woroma I. Benwoke 1, Eric O. Aigbogun (Jr.) *2, Emmanuel Bienonwu 3, Tamuno-Olobo Johnbull 4.

1 Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Pamo University of Medical Sciences, Rivers State, Nigeria.

*2 Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, University of Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

3 Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Igbinedion University Okada, Edo State, Nigeria.

4 Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

Corresponding author: Aigbogun (Jr.) Eric, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. E-Mail: eric_aigbogun@uniport.edu.ng


One of the simplest values that can be determined from the skeleton is sex; the accuracy is greater if essential parts are intact. Discriminant functional analysis is the most popular statistical method implored in sex determination and this has encouraged the accurate assessment of anthropometric data. This study was carried out to evaluate the sex-discriminatory characteristics of the clavicle of Nigerian origin. 45 clavicles (comprising of 25 males and 20 females) of both sides were macerated from dissected cadavers from the Anatomy Departments of the University of Port Harcourt Rivers State, Igbinedion University Okada, Ambrose Ali University Ekpoma both in Edo State and Nnamdi Azikiwe University Enugu State.  Clavicles with signs of deformity and/or fracture were excluded. Parameters obtained from the clavicle included; length, weight mid-shaft circumference, robustness index, angles, and volume. The measurements obtained were subjected to SPSS (IBM version 23.0, Armonk, USA) paired sample t-test and Pearson’s correlation analysis to evaluate side difference and level of correlates respectively while Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) was used to evaluate the accuracy of the parameters in estimating sex. Confidence level was set at 95%, and P-value <0.05 was taken to be significant. The result showed high sex differences in the measurement (P<0.01) as well as sex-differentiated correlation in the left and right clavicular measurement (r2; 79 – 98%; P<0.01), The parameters of the right and left clavicle were highly significant with positive correlation at varying degree for total population studied. The extent of correlation (80-99%) between the L & R clavicular measurements informed the need for side-specific DFA. The R & L clavicles produced centroid values of 1.522 and 1.290 for males and –2.537 and -2.150 for females respectively. The accuracy in predicting group membership using the right clavicular parameters was 91.5% while the left was 87.0%, with a better prediction for females. The estimation of sex from the clavicle of Nigerian origin is at least 87% possible using the studied clavicular characteristics.

KEY WORDS: Clavicle, Cadaver, Discriminant Function Analysis, Nigeria, Sex.


  1. Kumar R, Madewell JE, Swischuk LE, Marvin ML, David R. The Clavicle: Normal and abnormal. Department of Radiology. The University of Texas Medical Branch. Galveston, TX77550. 1989.
  2. Chris, Clavicle (Human Collar bone Anatomy Pars, Location and Functions), 2016. Available at www.headthhype.com [Accessed on February 12, 2018].
  3. Moore K, Arthur F. Clinically oriented Anatomy. 5th Philadelphia Lippincott William and Wilkins 2006; 728-730, 848-852.
  4. Krogman WM. The Human skeleton in forensic medicine. Springfield, Illinois, U.S.A Charles C. Thomas Pub Ltd 1962.
  5. Davivongs V. The Pelvic Girdle of the Australian Aborigines: Sex difference and sex determination. Am J Phys Anthropol 1963; 21: 443-455.
  6. Chavda HS, Khatri CR, Varlekar PD, Saiyad SS. Morphometric analysis and sex determination from clavicles in Gujarati Population. NJIRM 2013; 4(6): 18-22.
  7. Papaioannou VA, Kranoti EF, Joveneaux P, Nathena D, Michalodimitrakis M. Sexual Dimorphism of the Scapula and the clavicle in a contemporary Greek Population: Application in Forensic Identification. Forensic Sci Int 2012; 217(1-3) 231.e1-231.e7.
  8. Akhlaghi M, Moradi B, Hajibeygi M. Sex Determination using Anthropometric dimensions of the clavicle in Iranian population. J Forensic Leg Med 2012; 19(7): 381-385.
  9. Olivier G. Anthropologic de la clavicula III La clavicule du Françis. Bull soc Anthrop 1951; 2: 121-157.
  10. Fisher R. The Precision of Discriminate Function Analysis. Ann Hum Genet 1940; 10(1): 422-429.
  11. Iscan MY, Ding S. Sexual dimorphism in the Chinese Femur. Forensic Sci Int 1995; 74: 79-87.
  12. Iscan MY, Miller-Shaivitz P. Determination of Sex from the Tibia. Am J Phys Anthropol 1984; 64: 53-57.
  13. Iscan, MY. Forensic anthropology of sex and body size (Editoral). Forensic Sci Int 2005; 147: 107-112.
  14. Ibeachu PC, Aigbogun E, Didia BC, Fawehinmi HB. Determination of Sexual Dimorphism by Odontometric Study using Discriminante Function Analysis of Adult Ikwerre Dental cast, SJAMS 2015; 3(4B): 1732-1738.
  15. Alabi SA, Didia BC, Oladipo GS, Aigbogun EO. Evaluation of sexual dimorphism by discriminant function analysis of toe length (1T-5T) of adult Igbo populace in Nigeria. Niger Med J2016; 57(4): 226-232.
  16. Fischer B, Mitteroecker P. Allometry and sexual dimorphism in the Human pelvis. Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2017; 300: 698–705.
  17. Gouda HS, Bastiia BK. Sexual dimorphism of skull-Morphological and mathematical facet. Indian J Forensic Med Toxicol 2010; 4(2): 52-54.
  18. Kölzer SC, Kümmell IV, Kölzer JT, Ramsthaler F, Plenzig S, Gehl A, Verhoff MA. Human frontal inclination of the skull as a trait of sexual dimorphism-terminology and quantification. Arch Kriminol 2015; 235(1-2): 11-21.
  19. Di Vella G, Campobasso CP, Dragone M, Introna FJ. Skeletal sex determination by scapular measurements. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper 1994; 70(12): 299-305.
  20. Patel SM, Shah MA, Vora RK, Goda JB, Rathod SP, Shah S. Morphometric analysis of scapula to determine sexual dimorphism. Int J Med Public Health 2013; 3: 207-210.
  21. Bellemare F, Fuamba T, Bourgeault A. Sexual dimorphism of human ribs. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2006; 150 (2-3): 233-239.
  22. Shobha SC, Jatti B, Murthy CR. Identification of sex of human clavicles from North Karnataka zone. Anthropologist 2014; 17(2): 917-920.
  23. Doshi MA, Reddy BA. Determination of sex of adult human clavicle by discriminant function analysis in Marathwada region of Maharashtra. IJRMS 2017; 5(9): 3859-3864.
  24. Rogers TL. Sex determination of adolescent skeletons using the distal humerus. Am J Phys Anthropol 2009; 140(1): 143-148.
  25. Weaver AS, Schoell SL, Stitzel JD. Morphometric analysis of variation in the ribs with age and sex. J Anat 2014; 225: 246-261.
  26. Ishwarkumar S, Pillay P, Haffajee MR, Rennie C. Sex determination using morphometric and morphological dimensions of the clavicle within the KwaZulu-Natal population. Int J Morphol 2016; 34(1): 244-251.

Cite this article: Woroma I. Benwoke, Eric O. Aigbogun (Jr.), Emmanuel Bienonwu, Tamuno-Olobo Johnbull. THE CLAVICLE AS A FORENSIC TOOL: SEX-DISCRIMINATORY CHARACTERISTICS IN CADAVERIC SAMPLES OF NIGERIA ORIGIN. Int J Anat Res 2019;7(2.1):6336-6340b. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2019.109