Type of Article:  Original

Volume 7; Issue 1.2 (February 2019)

Page No.: 6161-6165

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2018.427


Shanmukha Varalakshmi Vangara 1, Dhananjay Kumar *2, Patnaik VV Gopichand 3, Nidhi Puri 4.

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Shri Ram Murti Smarak Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhoijipura, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

*2 Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Shri Ram Murti Smarak Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhoijipura, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

3 Professor & Dean, Mamata Medical College and Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

4 Professor, Department of Anatomy, Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar Government Medical College Nahan, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Corresponding author: Dr. Dhananjay Kumar, Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, SRMS-IMS, Bhoijipura, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India. E-Mail: dhananjay_anat@yahoo.com


Pes planus and pes cavus are the two common foot conditions, which fascinate the attention of researchers. A deviation from normal foot arch structure is associated with unstable gait. This study aims at assessing the staheli arch index (SAI) of Jharkhand tribal children. This study was carried out on children belonging to various tribal groups of Ranchi and Angara districts of Jharkhand. Graphical footprints of the study subjects were recorded and assessed using SPSS-16. The mean right SAI was 0.63 and 0.61 for right and left foot respectively. The mean right SAI was significantly greater than that of left foot. Gender differences in mean SAI was statistically insignificant at p<0.05. The mean SAI of 0.75 and 0.76 at the age of 3:<4 years was reduced to 0.64 and 0.61 by 14:<15 years age for right and left foot respectively. There was insignificant correlation of SAI with age and body mass index (p < 0.05).

Key words: Staheli arch index, Pes planus, Pes cavus.


  1. Daniel DK, Chandrasekaran C, Mano A. A study on prevalence of flat feet among school children in Kanchipuram population. Int J Anat Res. 2015;3(3):1240-4.
  2. Balouchy R. Comparative analysis of lower limb alignments in healthy subjects and subjects with back pain. Annals Appl Sport Sci. 2015;3(2):33-42.
  3. Kumar D, Gopichand PV, Puri N. Study of knee angle in tribal children of Andhra Pradesh. Asian J Med Sci. 2016;7(6):75-81
  4. Vangara SV, Gopichand PV, Bedi M, Puri N. Effect of barefoot walking on foot arch structure in Tribal children. Asian J Med Sci. 2016;7(5):108-16.
  5. Hernandez AJ, Kimura LK, Laraya MHF, Favaro E. Calculation of Staheli’s plantar arch index and prevalence of flat feet: a study with 100 children aged 5-9 years. Acta Ortop Bras. 2007;15(2):68-71.
  6. Janchai S, Chaiwanichsiri D, Silpipat N, Tiamprasitt J. Ageing feet and plantar arch characteristics of the Thai elderly. Asian Biomedicine. 2008;2(4):297-303.
  7. Shariff SM, Manaharan T, Shariff AA, Merican AF. Evaluation of foot arch in adult women: Comparison between five different footprint parameters. Sains Malaysiana. 2017;46(10):1839-48.
  8. Bhattacharjee N, Goswami M. Footprint analysis and prevalence of flatfoot: a study among the children of South 24 Parganas,BWest Bengal, India. Anthropol Rev. 2017;80(4):369-80.
  9. Abaraogu UO, Onyeka C, Ucheagwu C, Ozioko M. Association between flatfoot and age is mediated by sex: a cross-sectional study. Pol Annal Med. 2016;23(2):141-6.
  10. Hazzaa HH, El-Meniawy GH, Ahmed SE, Bedier MB. Correlation between gender and age and flat foot in obese children. Trends Appl Sci Res. 2015;10(4):207-15.
  11. Vijayakumar K, Kumar SS, Subramanian R. A study on relationship between and prevalence of flat foot among the adults using foot print parameters. Int J adv Res. 2016;4(5):1428-31.
  12. Ezema CI, Abaraogu UO, Okafor GO. Flat foot and associated factors among primary school children: A cross-sectional study. Hong Kong Phys J. 2013:1-8.
  13. Enrique VA, Sanchez RFS, Posada JRC, Molano AC, Guevara OA. Prevalence of flatfoot in school between 3 and 10 years. Study of two different populations geographically and socially. Colomb Med. 2012;43(2):141-6.
  14. Umar MBT, Paul A. Incidence of flat foot and anthropometric comparison between flat and normal foot of the Yourba ethnic group of Nigeria. Res J Appl Sci. 2010;5(6):412-6.
  15. Umar MB, Tafida RU. Prevalence of flatfoot and anthropometric comparison between flat and normal feet in the Hausa ethnic group of Nigeria. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2013;103(5):369-73.
  16. Ceron HIS, Ramirez AG, Acevedo MAR, Rodriguez PP. Childhood obesity: a risk factor for development of flatfoot. Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex. 2015;72(1):55-60.

Cite this article: Shanmukha Varalakshmi Vangara, Dhananjay Kumar, Patnaik VV Gopichand, Nidhi Puri. ASSESSMENT OF STAHELI ARCH INDEX IN TRIBAL CHILDREN OF JHARKHAND STATE. Int J Anat Res 2019;7(1.2):6161-6165. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2018.427