Type of Article:  Original Research

Volume 6; Issue 4.3 (December 2018)

Page No.: 5978-5982

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2018.389


P.S. Chitra *1, S. Kalaiyarasi 2.

1 Professor of Anatomy, K.A.P.V.Govt.Medical College, Trichy, Tamil Nadu, India.

*2 Associate Professor of Anatomy, K.A.P.V.Govt.Medical College, Trichy, Tamil Nadu, India.

Corresponding Author: Dr. S.Kalaiyarasi ,  M.S.(Anatomy), Associate Professor of Anatomy, KAPV Government Medical College, Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu.  India.  Mobile No: 99945 59046 E-Mail: arasitmc81@gmail.Com


Background: The ileocaecal region is a juncture where the ileum enters the colon and the caecum is continuous proximally with terminal ileum and distally with the ascending colon.Theileocaecal orifice is guarded by ileocaecal valve. The caecum and the ileocaecal valve  show significant variations in the shape and dimensions. The ileocaecal region is the common site for clinical conditions like polyps, diverticulae, volvulus & intussusception. Use of ileocaecal segment in bladder reconstruction surgery also makes anatomy of this region more important. The aim of our study was to elucidate the morphological variations of caecum and ileocaecal valve and their clinical importance.

Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 100 human cadaveric specimens, during routine dissection for the undergraduate students in the department of Anatomy, K.A.P.V. Government medical college, Trichy. The size & shape of the caecum, level of its peritoneal attachment, position & shape of the ileocaecal valve, its dimensions, the distance between the ileocaecal and appendicular orifices were noted and measured.

Results: The length of the caecum ranged from 2to 7 cm.The breadth of caecum ranged from4.5 to 7cm.The shape of caecum was of Adult type in 97% of cases.The caecum was completely covered by peritoneum and not fused to the posterior abdominal wall in 75% of cases. The ileum terminates into the posteromedial aspect ofcaecum in 58% ofcases.The shape of ileocaecal orifice was slit like in 49% of cases.The height of upper labia of ileocaecal valve was within the range of 0.5cm-2.5cm, and of lower labia ranged from 0.5cm to 1cm.The diameter of ileocaecal orifice varied from 1.1 to 2.5 cm.The distance between the ileocaecal and appendicular orifices ranged between 1.7 – 5cm.

Conclusion: This study focused on normal and variant anatomy of caecum and ileocaecal junction. This study will be of help in radiological, ultrasonic and CT diagnosis of the ileocaecal region pathology and in planning for better therapeutic options.

Key words: Caecum, Ileocaecal Valve, Shape, Dimensions, Variations.


  1. Susan Standring, Grey’s Anatomy- the anatomical basis of clinical practice. 40thLondon: Elsevier Churchill Livingston; 2008;1141-1142.
  2. Hollinshead, W.H: Anatomy for surgeons Vol 2. 2nd Hagerstown, M.D. Harper & Row, 1971.280 – 283,480-491.
  3. Treves F. Lecture on the anatomy of the intestinal canal and peritoneum in man. Brit. M. J. Lecture I, 1 : 415; Lecture II, 1: 470; Lecture III, 1: 527,580.
  4. Berry, R.J.A. The anatomy of vermiform appendix, Anat. Anz 1895b;10:761.
  5. J.Romanes. Cunninghams Manual of Practical Anatomy Volume 2.15th edition. New York: Oxford University Press; 2007;141-142.
  6. ShilpaNaik, Sangeetha.M. Anatomical variations of Caecum and Appendix: A Cadaveric study. Int J Anat Res 2017;5(3.1):4036-39.
  7. Pavlov S, Perov V. surI’anse souse clavier deroite retro Oesophageenne Folia med plovdiv 1968;10:73- 78.
  8. Vidya CS.Anatomical variations of caecum and appendix: A cadaveric study in Mysore based population. Indian Journal of Clinical Anatomy and Physiology 2016;3(3):262-265.
  9. Amritha Nidhi, etal.Morphology of Caecum in Human Fetuses at Different Gestational ages. International Journal of Contemporary Medical Research.2018;5(4): D1-D5.
  10. Smith, GM. A statistical review of the variations in the anatomic positions of the caecum and processusvermiformis in the infant. Anatomy Record.1911;5:549-556.
  11. Wakeley CPG. The position of vermiform appendix as ascertained by an analysis of 10,000 cases. J Anat.1933;67:277-283.
  12. Garis, C Topography and development of Caecum and appendix. Annals of Surgery.1941;113:540-548.
  13. Wolfer J.A. Beatson, L.E., and Anson. B.J Volvulus of the cecum Anatomical factors in its etiology; report of a case. Surg., Gynaec. & Obst 1942;74:882.
  14. Silva et al. Spectrum of normal and abnormal CT appearances of the ileocaecal valve and caecum with endoscopic and surgical correlation. Radio  Graphics. https/doi.org/10.1148/rg 274065164.
  15. Carol E.H.Scott – Conner . Essential operative technique and anatomy.4th2014: 508-511, 527-528.
  16. Fleischner, F.G., and Bernstein, C: Roentgenanatomical studies of the normal Ileocecalvalve: Radiology.1950:54:43-58.
  17. E,Dennis C, Vardo R I; et al, Histology   of  Experimental  appendicle obstruction (rabbit, ape ,man ) . Arch  Pathl 1940;30:481-503.
  18. Wakefield E.G andFriedell M.T. the structured significance of the ileocecal Valve J.A.M.A 1941;116:1889.
  19. Susan M. Cera. Intestinal Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgeries.2008: May; 21(2):106-113.
  20. Cotton PB, Williams CB, Practical gastrointestinal endoscopy, London: Blackwell publishers.1996;116-160.

Cite this article: P.S. Chitra, S. Kalaiyarasi. A STUDY ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF ILEO-CAECAL REGION AND ITS CLINICAL CORRELATIONS. Int J Anat Res 2018;6(4.3):5978-5982. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2018.389