Type of Article:  Original Research

Volume 6; Issue 4.2 (November 2018)

Page No.: 5892-5910

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2018.370


Shweta B Shambharkar *1, Shabana Borate 2, Suresh Gangane 3.

*1 Assistant Professor, Dept of Anatomy, Govt. Medical College, Gondia, Maharashtra, India.

2 Associate Professor, Dept of Anatomy, Grant Govt. Medical College, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

3 Ex Professor and Head, Dept of Anatomy, Grant Govt. Medical College, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Address for Correspondence: Dr.Shweta B Shambharkar, Plot No.43/B, Dhadiwal Layout, Suyog Nagar Square, Post: Parwati Nagar, Nagpur, Maharashtra-440027, India. Phone: 9960810368 E-Mail: shambharkar.shweta4@gmail.com


Background: Kidneys are amongst the common sites of congenital abnormalities and anatomical variations. Congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) constitute approximately 20 to 30% of all anomalies identified in the prenatal period and a leading cause of renal failure in children. The common variations pertaining to kidney are polycystic kidney, unascended kidney, horseshoe kidney with fused upper or lower pole, atrophic kidney, lobulated kidney, malrotated kidney, bifid pelvis or ureter, most common being bifid pelvis and pancake kidney is a very rare variant.

Purpose of study: The present study was undertaken to observe the anatomical variations of human adult cadaveric kidneys and study its incidence, prevalence, morphology and shed a light on its embryological, genetic and clinical significance.

Materials and Methods: Fifty human adult cadavers were included in our study; observed and studied over a period of three years in the Department of Anatomy, Grant Govt. Medical College, Mumbai, during routine dissection.

Results: In our study we found, 01.01% of renal agenesis, 01.01% of fused pelvic or pancake kidney, 01.01% of malrotated kidney, 02.02% of unascended kidneys, 05.05% hypoplastic or atrophic kidneys, 07.07% lobulated kidneys, 05.05% polycystic kidneys, 02.02% of bifid pelvis and 03.03% of triplicate pelvis.

Embryological basis: The development of kidney begins at the fourth week of gestation; the failure of proper inductive interaction between the ureteric bud and the metanephric blastemal can lead to various congenital anomalies. Anomalies can result due to abnormal development, ascent, rotation and migration.

Genetic basis: CAKUT are either sporadic, familial, syndromic or non-syndromic. Transcription factor ‘WT1’ produced by mesenchyme of the metanephric blastemal helps in epithelialization of ureteric bud. Congenital abnormality occurs when there is mutation of genes that regulates the expression of WT1.

Conclusion: Renal anomalies are one of the commonest anomalies which may remain unnoticed till adulthood. The knowledge of anatomical variations of kidney and ureter is of utmost importance for surgical and uroradiological interventions. Hence an early detection and proper follow-up may be helpful in better management and increased survival rates.

Key words:  Variations, Polycystic, Atrophic, Lobulated,   Unascended, Pancake, Triplicate.


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