Type of Article:  Original Research

Volume 7; Issue 1.1 (January 2019)

Page No.: 6026-6034

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2018.369


Subhadra Devi Velichety 1, K. Thyagaraju *2, Siva Kumar Vishnubhotla 3, B. Ravindra Kumar 4.

1 Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy, Sri Padmavathi Medical College for Women, SVIMS University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India.

*2 Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Sri Padmavathi Medical College for Women, SVIMS University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India.

3 Senior Professor, Department of Nephrology, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India.

4 Lecturer, Department of Anatomy, Sri Padmavathi Medical College for Women, SVIMS University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Address for Correspondence:  K. Thyagaraju, Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Sri Padmavathi Medical College for Women, SVIMS University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India. E-Mail: tyagaraj21@gmail.com


Introduction: The description given in various textbooks and literature on development of nephrons in human kidney doesn’t include details of chronology of nephrogenic events at various fetal ages. Though several studies were reported the knowledge on development of kidney especially on the nephrogenesis are limited. The studies emphasize the relationship between prenatal development of kidney and adult onset of renal diseases. Hence, an attempt was made in this study to obtain information by observing the serial sections of kidney of embryos and foetuses of different gestational ages for better understanding of nephrogenic events.

Material and methods: Thirty-five aborted embryos and dead fetuses of 5 weeks gestational age to full term were utilized for this study. The weight, Crown-rump length (CRL) and Crown-heel length (CHL) of foetuses were recorded. Kidneys were removed from the fetuses of more than 8 weeks gestational age by opening the abdominal cavity. The specimens were subjected to routine tissue processing and haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining.  5 embryos of less than 8 weeks gestational age were processed as a whole and were serially sectioned. The histological sections of 5 microns thickness were observed for the time of appearance of various nephrogenic components and photographed.

Results: Differentiating pronephric, mesonephric and metanephric components in different weeks such i.e. 05 – 12, 13 – 24, 25-36 were studied. In 06 – 12 weeks group a delay in the appearance of Pro and mesonephric, Meso and metanephric ducts were observed that appeared during the 6th week. Differentiation of other components have not completed by 6th week as stated in the literature.  In 13 – 24 weeks also there is delay in cortico-medullary differentiation that was observed at 16 wks. at which time the morphologically recognizable Nephrons were also observed. Major part of development occurred between 16-28 weeks instead of 16-24weeks as stated in the literature. Ampulla division continued beyond 24 weeks. Increased number of mature nephrons were observed between 24-28 weeks instead of 16-20 wks., nephron arcades were observed during 24-28 weeks instead of 14-22weeks.

Discussion: Delay of 2 to 6 weeks in the chronology of appearance /disappearance/ differentiation/ maturation of various morphological components in the ontogenesis of metanephric kidney while recapitulating its ancestral history (phylogeny) when compared with available literature.

Conclusion: Detailed findings of this study could aid the embryologists, neonatologists and nephrologists to understand the chronology of nephrogenic events and related consequences of developmental abnormalities.

Key words: Nephrogenic Events, Human embryos, Foetal Kidney, Pronephric, Mesonephric, Metanephric, Phylogeny.


    1. Subhadra devi V. Inderbir Singh’s Human embryology, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers; 11th edition (2018).
    1. Potter L. Development of the human glomerulus. Archives of pathology, 1965;80: 241-255.
    1. Gary C. Schoenwolf, Philippa H. Francis-West, Steven B. Bleyl, Philip R. Brauer Editors: Philip R. Brauer, Steven B. Bleyl, Gary C. Schoenwolf. Larsen’s Human Embryology , Churchill Livingstone; 5 edition (December 24, 2014)
    1. Scott F. Gilbert. Developmental Biology. Sinauer Associates Inc (1887).
    1. Moore and Persaud, The Developing Human, 10th Edition Saunders Title 2016.
    1. Woolf AS, Winyard PJ, Hermanns MH, Welham SJ. Maldevelopment of the human kidney and lower urinary tract: an overview. In The kidney 2003:377-393.
    1. Peter D. Vize, Adrian S. Woolf, Jonathan B.L. Bard. The Kidney: From Normal Development to Congenital Disease. Elsevier, 2003.
    1. Vize PD, Carroll TJ, Wallingford JB. Induction, development, and physiology of the pronephric tubules. InThe Kidney 2003;19-50.
    1. Harland W. Mossman and James W. Hamilton. Human Embryology: Prenatal Development of Form and Function
    1. Shalika Sharma, Sunanda Raina. STUDY OF HUMAN FETAL KIDNEY. Int J Anat Res 2014;2(4):785-790. DOI: 16965/ijar.2014.550.
    1. Bhattam Narasinga Rao and Mantraratnam Pramila Padmini. PRENATAL HISTOGENESIS OF KINDEY IN HUMAN FOETUSES. International Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Sciences. 2012; 2(2):144-147.
    1. Takano K, Kawasaki Y, Imaizumi T, Matsuura H, Nozawa R, Tannji M, Suyama K, Isome M, Suzuki H, Hosoya M. Devlopment of glomerular endothelial cells,podocyte and mesangial cells in the human fetus and infant; Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 2007;212(1) 81-90
    1. Maria H., Daudt L. Diagnosis of the human fetal age based on the development of the normal kidney. Journal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medici Laboratorial., 2002; 38(2): 1-10.
    1. Sabita mishra, Anant Dinesh, J.M. Kaul, Morphological and morphometrical study of human renal development during midgestational period, JASI. 2006; 55(2): 5-10.
    1. Hosapatna M, Bangera H, D Souza A, Das A, Supriya, D Souza AS, Ankolekar VH. Histological differentiation of human fetal kidney. IAIM, 2015; 2(7): 49-54.
    1. Anant Dinesh, Anant Mishra and Kaul J.M. Morphological and Morpho-metrical Study of Human Renal Development During Mid-Gestation Period. Journal of Anatomical Society of India 2006;55(2):07 –12.
    1. Syed Sadiqali. A., Joshi R. A., Herekar N. G. Histogenesis of Kidney in Human Fetuses. International Journal of Recent Trends in Science And Technology, 2012; 3(2): 44-48.
    1. Tank K. C., Saiyad S. S., Pandya A. M., Akbari V. J., Dangar K. P. A study of histogenesis of human fetal kidney. Int J Biol Med Res., 2012; 3(1): 1315-1321.
    1. Mishra S., Dinesh A., Kaul J. M. Morphological and morpho-metrical study of Human renal development during midgestational period. J. Anat.soc. India, 2006; 55(2): 5.
    1. Daković-Bjelaković M., Cukuranović R., Antić S., Bjelaković G., Mitić D. Quantitative analysis of the nephron during human fetal kidney development. Vojnosanit Pregl., 2005; 62(4): 281-286.
    1. Shimada K, Hosokawa S, Tohda A. Histological study of the fetal kidneys. Development of the nephrons according to gestational weeks. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi. 1993 Dec;84(12):2091-6.
    1. Morag S., Emery J. L. The late intrauterine and postnatal development of human renal glomeruli. Journal of Anatomy, 1959; 93(3): 331-340.
  1. Khayati Sant Ram, Anshu Sharma, Mahesh Sharma, Naresh Goel, Daisy Sahni. HISTOGENESIS OF FETAL KIDNEY IN FETUSES OF DIFFERENT GESTATIONAL AGE GROUPS. J. Anat. Sciences, 2015;23(1):1-4.

Cite this article: Subhadra Devi Velichety, K. Thyagaraju, Siva Kumar Vishnubhotla, B. Ravindra Kumar. CHRONOLOGY OF NEPHROGENIC EVENTS IN STAGED ABORTED HUMAN EMBRYOS AND FETUSES. Int J Anat Res 2019;7(1.1):6026-6034. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2018.369