Type of Article:  Case Report

Volume 6; Issue 4.1 (October 2018)

Page No.: 5733-5734

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2018.327


Jeneeta Baa *1, R.K.Behera 2.

*1Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, GVP Institute of healthcare and medical technology, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.

2 Tutor, Department of Anatomy, M.K.C.G.Medical College and Hospital, Berhampur, Odisha, India.

Address for Correspondence: Dr. Jeneeta Baa, Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, GVP Institute of health care and medical technology, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh 530048, India. E-Mail: drjeneetabaa@gmail.com


Amelia is defined as the complete absence of the skeletal parts of a limb. Tetra- amelia, is the absence of all the four limbs is a very rare condition with an incidence range of 1.5–4/100,000 births. Many factors causing various limb defects are genetic, environmental (teratogens), vascular compromise by amniotic bands and conditions like oligohydraminos and maternal diabetes. Point mutation in the WNT gene plays a major role in causing limb defects.

Key words: Amelia, Tetra- amelia, Genetic, Teratogens, Maternal diabetes,  Oligohydraminos.


  1. Lenz W. Genetics and limb deficiencies. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1980;146:9-17.
  2. Song SY, Chi JG. Tri-amelia and phocomelia with multiple malformations resembling Roberts syndrome in a fetus: Is it a variant or a new syndrome? Clin Genet 1996;50:502-4.
  3. Morey MA, Higgens RR. Electro-amelia syndrome associated with an interstitial deletion of 7q.AmJ Med Genet 1990.Jan;35(1):95-9910.1002/ajmg.1320350118[pubmed]
  4. Niemann S, Zhao C, Pascu F, Stahl U, Aulepp U, Niswander L, et al. Homozygous WNT3 mutation causes tetra-amelia in a large consanguineous family. Am J Hum Genet 2004;74:558-63.
  5. Basaran S, Yüksel A, Ermis H, Kuseyri F, Agan M, Yüksel-Apak M. Tetra-amelia, lung hypo-/aplasia, cleft lip-palate, and heart defect: A new syndrome? Am J Med Genet 1994;51:77-80.

Cite this article: Jeneeta Baa, R.K.Behera. LIFE WITHOUT LIMBS: TETRA-AMELIA. Int J Anat Res 2018;6(4.1):5733-5734. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2018.327