Type of Article:  Original Research

Volume 6; Issue 3.1 (July 2018)

Page No.: 5471-5476

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2018.248


Tsegah M. Korantema *1,  Asante DuBois 2.

*1 Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health and Allied Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana.

2 Department of Forensic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, College of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana. 

Address for Correspondence: Mrs. Tsegah M. Korantema, Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health and Allied Sciences, University of Cape Coast Cape Coast, Ghana. E-Mail: ktsegah@ucc.edu.gh


Background: Birth weight is an important determinant of health of a child, with low birth weight associated with the occurrence of many chronic diseases in adult life.

Aim: The objective of this study is to determine the correlation between mode of insertion of umbilical cord and neonatal weight and some placental variables.

Methods: Forty placentas were obtained from the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital in the Central Region. Umbilical cord length was measured and its position on the placenta noted and recorded. The placentas were trimmed and measurements of placental weight, diameter, and thickness were measured using Olympic smart scale and anthropometric measure respectively and then the volume were also recorded.

Results: Three forms of umbilical cord insertion on the placentas were observed: central, eccentric and marginal. The result obtained shows that 57.5% of the umbilical cord insertions were eccentric, central cord insertions were 11 (27.5%) and marginal insertions were 6 (15%).

Conclusion: The results were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi-square and showed that the umbilical cord inserts more eccentrically and that mode of umbilical cord insertion has no association  with the  placental variables and birth weight looked at and thus mode of cord insertion may not significantly influence birth weight of the neonate. There was however a positive association between placental index and umbilical cord length (P < 0.05).

KEY WORDS: Umbilical Cord, Placental Variables, Neonatal Weight, Umbilical Cord Insertion.


  1. Sadler T. W. Langman’s medical embryology, 7th Edition Twin Bridges Publication, Montana, USA. 2008;352-355.
  2. Schnieke, C., Prussian, K. H, Barksdale D. J. and Dieckman J. Racial and ethnic differences in the presentation of birth weight. J Nurse Pract. 2007;3:229–239.
  3. Mondal, B. Low birth weight in relation to sex of baby, maternal age and parity: A hospital based study on Tangsa tribe from Arunachal Pradesh. J. Ind. Med. Assoc. 1998; 96(12):362-370.
  4. Cruikshank, D.W. and Breech, A. Other Malpresentations, and Umbilical Cord Complications, in: Scott, J. R., et al. (eds.), Danforth’s Obstetrics and Gynecology, 9th Edition. Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2003;381-395.
  5. Bloomberg, J. H. Placental weight relative to birth weight and long-term cardiovascular mortality. American Journal of Epidemiology 2009;170 (5): 662.
  6. Canola, H., Balkau, B., Charles, M. S. Comments on the provisional report from the WHO consultation. European Group for the Study of Birth weight. Pedi Med 1992; 16:442-3.
  7. Shun-Jen, T., Chi-Huang, C., Gwo-Jang, W., Wei-Hwa, C. and Cheng-Chang, C. Fetal demise by umbilical cord around abdomen and stricture. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 2010; 281(1):137-139.
  8. Kent, G., and Kliman, H. J. The placenta revealed. American journal of pathology. 1993;143(2): 332-336
  9. Fox, H. and Uyanwah-Ak-pom, A. S. Pathology of the placenta.10th Sanders Pub., London. 1977;1- 35.
  10. Hamilton, D., Guimaraes, I.C. and Guimaraes, A.C. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in selected samples of school children – socioeconomic influence. PrevCardiol 2005;8(1):23–28.
  11. Glenister, T. W. A. and Jean, R. W. S. Anatomy and Physiology for Nurses. 3rd New Delhi, India. CBS Publishers and Distribution. 2004;71, 77 and 204.
  12. Monie, D. M., Margaret, A. C. and Anna, G.W. N. Myles Textbook for Midwives. 14th Churchill Livingstone. China. P1997;763-778.
  13. Salafia, M. S. and Vintzileos, D. F. Determinants of low birth weight. WHO 1987;65:663-737.
  14. Herbez, M. N., Herbst-Damm, K. L. and Kulik, J. A. Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 2005;24:225-229.
  15. Jauniaux, S., Onie, G. A. and Katz, M. J. Umbilical Cord Complications, Wild Iris Medical Education 2007, Inc. NURSING CEU.com. In www.acc.unsystem.org/scn
  16. Mayhew, R. The human placenta. 6TH Aspen Publishers Inc. U.S.A. 1983;1-119.
  17. Tsegah, K. M. Variation of placental index with the volumetric composition of terminal villi in spontaneously delivered placentas (MPhil Thesis). Department of Anatomy, University of Ghana. 2009;1-94.
  18. Sillick, T. J. and Schutte, N. S. Emotional, intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early prenatal care and antenatal care. Applied Psychology, 2006;2(2):38-48.
  19. Ahenkorah, J. Studies on morphological variations of the human umbilical cord (MPhil Thesis). Department of Anatomy, University of Ghana Medical School. 2003;1-80.
  20. Addai, F.K., Ockleford, C. D. The mode of insertion of umbilical cord and vessels: association with maternal haemoglobin gynotype, neonatal factors, and placental components volumes. Anat. Embryol. 1994;189:107-114.

Cite this article: Tsegah M. Korantema, Asante DuBois. MODE OF UMBILICAL CORD INSERTION AND NEONATAL WEIGHT, AND SOME PLACENTAL FACTORS . Int J Anat Res 2018;6(3.1):5471-5476. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2018.248