Type of Article:  Original Research

Volume 6; Issue 2.3 (June 2018)

Page No.: 5294-5300

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2018.190


Shilpa K 1, Priya Ranganath *2, Sumathi S 3.

1 Research Scholar, Department of Anatomy, BMCRI, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

*2 Professor & Head, Department of Anatomy, BMCRI, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, BMCRI, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Address for correspondence: Dr. Priya Ranganath, Professor & Head, Department of Anatomy, Bangalore Medical College & Research Institute, Fort, Bangalore – 560002, Karnataka, India. E-Mail: priya_ranganath@rediffmail.com


Introduction: Anencephaly accounts for one of the most common birth defects & is associated with a high mortality & morbidity. The objective was to determine frequency of anencephaly and its associated anomalies, risk factors, clinical presentations & assess maternal awareness on folic acid supplementation and its preventive role in occurrence of anencephaly.

Materials and Methods: The study includes 60 anencephalic fetuses (23 males & 37 females) of 20-30 weeks. The fetuses were examined for external abnormalities & dissected.  Measurements of crown heel, crown rump, head circumference, foot length, & weight were taken. All the major organs were weighed & data recorded. The samples were fixed with 10% buffered formaldehyde. The internal anomalies were noted.

Results: The number of deliveries was 57429 deliveries. 23(38.4%) were males & 37(61.6%) were females. The frequency of anencephaly in 2014 was 15134/9 (0.06%), in 2015 16361/21 (0.13%). Weight of 40% were <500gms, 35% were between 500-1000gms & 25% <1000. Maternal age in 83.4% were 21-35 years, in <20 years & >40 years were 1.6% & in 36-40 years were 13.4%.  Associated anomalies were present in 42 (70%) fetuses. Out of 42 fetuses, those who had associated anomalies were 17 (40.4%) males and 25 (59.6%) were females. All the fetuses had Acrania (100%) & 19 (45.3%) fetuses had spina bifida; there were no anomalies found in reproductive system.

Conclusion: 4mg of folic acid should be taken before 6 months of conceiving & during the entire pregnancy. In order to prevent the anencephaly and associated anomalies certain maternal risk factors should be avoided as prescribed by gynecologist.

KEY WORDS: Anencephaly, Crown Heel, Crown Rump, Head Circumference, Foot Length, Weight.


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Cite this article: Shilpa K, Priya Ranganath, Sumathi S. FREQUENCY OF ANENCEPHALY AND ITS ASSOCIATED ANOMALIES. Int J Anat Res 2018;6(2.3):5294-5300. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2018.190