Type of Article:  Original Research

Volume 5; Issue 4.2 (November 2017)

Page No.: 4630-4634

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2017.425


Vijayshree Muthukumar 1, Komala Nanjundaiah *2  Shailaja Shetty 3.

1 MBBS, M S Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, M.S.Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

3 Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy, M.S.Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Address for Correspondence:  Dr. Komala Nanjundaiah, Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, M.S.Ramaiah Medical College, M.S.R Nagar, Bangalore 560054, Karnataka, India. E-Mail: komas2001@yahoo.com


Back ground: The carotico clinoid foramen is formed by an osseous bridge between tip of the middle and anterior clinoid processes of the sphenoid bone and transmits one of the segments of internal carotid artery (ICA).

Context: The existence of a bony or osseous carotico clinoid foramen may cause compression, tightening or stretching of the ICA, especially of the clinoidal segment and cause complications in regional surgery.

Purpose: The present study is an effort to study the carotico clinoid foramen in skulls and observe various parameters like presence or absence, unilateral or bilateral, complete or incomplete, extent, dimensions of the ligament, dimensions of the foramen and sexual dominance.

Results: Presence of complete foramen was found in 12% and incomplete foramen was 26%. The mean width and thickness of the ligaments was found to be greater on the left side and greater in males. The size of the foramen was found to be more on the left side and in males. Complete foramina were found to be more in males while incomplete foramina were found equally in both sexes. Unilateral foramen were found to be more in females while bilateral foramina were found to be more in males.

Conclusion: Considering the fact that most of the anatomy text books do not provide a detailed description of the carotico clinoid ligament or foramen, the present study proves especially relevant to neurosurgeons in day to day clinical practice.

Implication: Knowledge of the prevalence of carotico clinoid foramen helps the neuro-surgeons for pre-operative scanning and precautions can be taken to prevent fatal complications during surgery. Further, removal of the anterior clinoid process is an important step in regional surgery, for which additional risk is involved. Therefore detailed anatomical knowledge of the carotico clinoid foramen is of utmost importance, to increase the success of regional surgeries.

Key words: carotico clinoid foramen, clinoid process, internal carotid artery, clinoidectomy, interclinoid foramen.


  1. Erturk M, Kayalioglu G. Anatomy of the clinoidal region with special emphasis on the caroticoclinoid foramen and interclinoid osseous bridge in a recent Turkish population. Neurosurg Rev 2004;27(1):22-26.
  2. Breathnach AS. Frazer’s Anatomy of Human Skeleton in sphenoid. J & A Churchil Ltd. London 1965;6:200-205.
  3. Williams P, Bannister L. Gray’s Anatomy in skull Churchill Livingstone, New York 2000;38:547-612.
  4. Lang J. Structure and postnatal organization of heretofore uninvestigated and infrequent ossifications of the sella turcica region. Acta Anat 1977;99:121–139.
  5. Rengachari S, Ellenbogen R. Intracranial aneurysm. In: Principles of Neurosurgery.  USA: Elsevier Mosby;2005;2:222-25.
  6. Iscan MY. forensic anthropology of sex and body size. Forensic science international. 2005;147(2):107-12.
  7. Dr Desai S D , Dr Sreepadma S. Study of carotico clinoid foramen in dry human skulls of north interior Karnataka National Journal of Basic Medical Sciences 2010;I(2): 60-64.
  8. Archana R, Anita R. Incidence of osseous interclinoid bars in Indian population Surg Radiol Anat. 2010;32(4):383-87.
  9. Keyers J. Observations on four thousand optic foramina in human skulls of known origin Arch Ophthalmol. 1935;13:538–68.
  10. DubRul E. Oral anatomy in the skull. J of Anatomy. 1990;169:266-67.
  11. Kier E. Embryology of the normal optic canal and its anomalies. An anatomic and roentgenographic study. Invest. Radiol, 1996;1:346-62.
  12. Shaikh S I,Ukey R K. Study of carotico-clinoid foramen in dry human skulls of aurangabad district International Journal of Basic Medical Sciences 2013;4(2):148-54.
  13. Aggrawal B. Ossified caroticoclinoid ligament of sphenoid bone Bombay Hospital Journal. 2011;53(4):743-46.
  14. Kanjiya D, Tandel M. Incidence of ossified interclinoid bars in dry human skulls of Gujarat state International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research 2012;03(12):874
  15. Magadum A. A Study Of Caroticoclinoid Foramen In The South Indian Skulls: incidence, Morphometry And Its Clinical Correlations. biomirror, 2012; 3(05):1-3.
  16. Inoue T, Rhoton A. Surgical approaches to the cavernous sinus: a microsurgical study. Neurosurgery1990;26:903–32.

Cite this article: Vijayshree Muthukumar, Komala Nanjundaiah, Shailaja Shetty. STUDY OF CAROTICO CLINOID FORAMEN IN DRY HUMAN SKULLS. Int J Anat Res 2017;5(4.2):4630-4634. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2017.425