Type of Article:  Original Research

Volume 5; Issue 4.1 (October 2017)

Page No.: 4463-4468

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2017.375


Bhanu Sudha Parimala Namburu *.

Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, N.R.I Medical College, China kakani, Guntur, District, (AP), India.

Address of Corresponding Author: Dr. N. B. S. Parimala, MBBS, M. D. (Anatomy), Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Balaji Nivas, 48-11/8-8, currency nagar main road, Near swarna Residency Apartments, Vijayawada, Krishna district, (AP), INDIA-520008. Mobile no: 9440791896 E-Mail: nbsparimala @gmail.com 


Introduction: Accessory renal arteries are more frequently reported than veins. Multiple renal veins tend  to be relatively common on the right and quite rare on the left side where as arteries have common incidence on both sides .The configuration patterns of the renal vein tributaries were classified as type IA (one upper and one lower tributary), type IB (type IA plus a posterior tributary); type IIA (more than two tributaries, for example, upper, middle and lower); type IIB (type IIA plus a posterior tributary); type III (any of the above classifications plus another additional vein).

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted during 2010 to2016, in 60 adult embalmed cadavers (60 right and 60 left kidneys) allotted for routine undergraduate dissection. Renal veins and their variations were studied and recorded carefully during dissection of retroperitoneal area.

Observations and Results: In the present study accessory renal veins were seen only on right side.  Additional veins were not observed on left side. Instead, extra hilar formation of left renal vein by the union of 2 or 3 tributaries was observed. Accessory right renal vein was observed in 3 out of 60 kidneys (5%). Extra hilar formation of left renal vein by the union of segmental renal tributaries, left supra renal vein and left gonadal vein was observed in 9 out of 60 kidneys (15%).Left renal vein with Retro aortic course seen in 5 out of 60 (8.3%) and circum aortic course in 2 out of 60 (3.3%) was also observed.

Discussion and Conclusion: Incidence of accessory right renal vein was variable from 33% to as low as 0.3 % in previous studies but in the present study it is 5%. The cause of such variations was explained embryologically owing to the complexity in the development of renal veins along with inferior vena cava. Variations in the renal veins are clinically unpredictable but pose technical difficulty during renal transplantation. Hence the study was undertaken.

Key Words: Accessory Renal Vein, Right Renal Vein, Inferior Vena Cava, Left Renal Vein, Renal Surgery.


  1. Hollinshed W. H. Anatomy for surgeons, 2nd edition New York, Harper Raw publishers 1961;542-546.
  2. Pick JW and Anson BJ. The renal vascular pedicle: An anatomical study of 430 body halves. J Urol 1940;44:411-34.
  3. Testut, L. & Latarjet, A. Tratado de Anatomía Humana. 8. ed. Barcelona, Salvat, 1947;4.
  4. Bergman, R. A.; Thompson, S. A.; Afifi, A. K. & Saadeh, F. A. Compendium of Human Anatomic Variation. Baltimore: Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1988.
  5. Mathews R, Smith PA, Fishman EK, Marshall FF. Anomalies of the inferior vena cava and renal veins: embryologic and surgical considerations. Urology 1999;53:873-80.
  6. Satyapal KS, Kalideen JM, Haffejee AA, Sing B, Robbs JV, Left renal vein variations, Surg Radiol Anat, 1999;21(1):77– 81.
  7. Satyapal KS, Classification of the drainage patterns of the renal veins, J Anat, 1995;186(Pt 2):329–333.
  8. Kadir S. Angiography of the kidneys. In: Kadir S, ed. Diagnostic angiography. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1986; 445–495.
  9. Baptista-Silva, J. C.; Verissimo, M. J. & Castro, M. J.; Camara, A. L. & Pestana, J. O. Anatomical study of the renal veins observed during 342 living-donor nephrectomies. Paul. Med. 1997;115(3):1456-9.
  10. Minniti S & Procacci C. Congenital anomalies of the vena cava: embryological origin, imaging features and report of three new variants. European Radiology 2002;12(8):2040-2055.
  11. Mankhause WS and Khalique A. The adrenal and renal mass and their connection with Azygos and lumber vein. J Anat .1986;146:105-15.
  12. luis ernesto ballesteros,vladimir saldarriaga,luis miguel Ramirez,Autopsy material from Colombian subjects,Rom J Morphol Embryol 2014;55(1):77–81.
  13. Anupma Gupta, Raman Gupta,Rikki Singal et al;Congenital Variations of Renal Veins: Embryological Background And Clinical Implications, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2011 November (Suppl-1);5(6):1140-1143.
  14. Anson BJ, Richardson GA and Minear WL. Variations in the number and arrangement of renal vessels; a study of blood supply of four hundred kidneys. J Urol. 1936;211-19.
  15. Jonas Rydberg,Kenyon K. Kopecky,Mark Tann, et al;Evaluation of prospective living renal donors for laparoscopic nephrectomy with multisection ct: the marriage of minimally invasive imaging with minimally invasive surgery,RadioGraphics 2001;21:S223–S236.
  16. Satyapal KS, The renal veins: a review, Eur J Anat Suppl, 2003;7(Suppl 1):43–52.
  17. Dhar P. and Ajmani ML. Major anomalies of left renal vein and inferior vena cava. Int Med J. 2004; (2): Dec.
  18. William PL, Bannister LH, Berry MM, Collins P, Dyson M, Dussek JE,et al. cardiovascular system. In Gray,s Anatomy 38th Ed. Churchill Livingstone Edinburg 1995:1547.
  19. M. P. Fernandes; F. H. P. Conte et al;Triple right renal vein: an uncommon variation Int. J. Morphol., 23(3):231-233, 2005.
  20. Kahn PC. Selective venography of the branches In: Ferris EJ, Hipona FA, Kahn PC, et al. eds. Venography of the inferior vena cava and its branches. Huntington: Krieger, 1973;154–224.
  21. Chuang VP, Mena CE, Hoskins PA. Congenital anomalies of the left renal veins: Angiographic consideration. Br J Radiol 1974;47:214-8.
  22. Reed MD, Friedman AC, Nealey P. Anomalies of the left renal vein: analysis of 433 CT scans. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1982;6:1124-6.
  23. Trigaux JP, Vandroogenbroek S, De Wispelaere JF, Lacrosse M,Jamart J. Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava and left renal vein: evaluation with spiral CT. J Vasc Interv Radiol.1998;9:339-45
  24. Tatar I, Tore HG, H. Hamidi Celik and Karcaaltincaba M. Retro aortic and Circumaortic left renal veins with their finding and review of the literature. Anatomy.2008; 2:72-6.
  25. KarkosCD,Bruce IA,Thomson GJ, Lambert ME.Retroaortic left renal vein &its implications in abdominal aortic surgery. AnnVasc Surg 2001;15:703-8.
  26. Yesildag A, Adanir E, Koroglu M, Baykal B, Oyar O, Gulsoy UK. Incidence of left renal vein anomalies in routine abdominal CTscans. Tani Girisim Radyol 2004; 10: 140-3.
  27. Karaman B, Koplay M, Ozturk E, Basekim CC, Ogul H, Mutlu H, et al. Retroaortic left renal vein: multidetector computed tomography angiography findings and its clinical importance. Acta Radiol 2007; 48:355-60.
  28. Aljabri B, McDonald PS, Satin R, Stein LS, Obrand DI & Steinmetz OK. Incidence of major venous and renal anomalies relevant to aortoiliac surgery as demonstrated by computed tomography. Annals of Vascular Surgery 2011;15(6):615-618.
  29. Andrew KK, Thom WR. Nutcracker phenomenon and nutcracker syndrome.Mayo Clin Proc 2010; 85:552-9.
  30. Sampaio, F. J. & Aragao, A. H. M. Anatomical relationship between the renal venous arrangement and the kidney collecting system. J. Urol., 1990;144:1089-93.

Cite this article: Bhanu Sudha Parimala Namburu. A STUDY OF RENAL VEINS. Int J Anat Res 2017;5(4.1):4463-4468. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2017.375