Type of Article:  Original Research

Volume 5; Issue 3.2 (August 2017)

Page No.: 4177-4181

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2017.279


Ajay M. Parmar *1, Bhadresh Vaghela 2, Kanan P. Shah 3, G C Agarwal .

*1 Assistant Professor , Department of Anatomy, PMCH, Udaipur, India.

2 Assistant professor, Anatomy Department, GMERS Medical Collage, Valsad, Gujarat, India.

3 Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Smt. N.H.L. MMC, Ahmedabad, India.

4 Professor&Head, Department of Anatomy, PMCH, Udaipur, India.

Address for Correspondence: Dr. Ajay M. Parmar,  Assistant professor, Department of Anatomy, PMCH, Udaipur, India. E-Mail: Drajay9118@gmail.com


Introduction: The morphology of the glenoid cavity is highly variable. It articulates with the head of the humerus at the glenohumeral joint. Shoulder joint is frequently dislocated so the knowledge of anatomic parameters and different shape of glenoid cavity are necessary for complete understanding of the mechanics of shoulder joint. The aim of the present study was to obtain the anthropometric data of the glenoid cavity of the scapula and to study the various shapes of the glenoid cavity which will help in management of shoulder pathology.

Materials and Methods: This study was done on 60 (30 right, 30 left) adult human scapula. Different parameter superior-inferior(SI), anterior-posterior diameter of the lower half(AP-1), anterior-posterior diameter of the upper half(AP-2) of glenoid cavity  have been measured with the help of digital vernier calipers and glenoid cavity index was calculated. The shape of the glenoid cavity was classified as inverted comma shaped, pear shaped and oval shaped depending upon the presence or absence of a notch on the glenoid rim.

Results: The average SI diameter on right and the left sides were 37.31±2.91mm and 37.46±2.92 mm respectively. The average AP-1 diameter of the right glenoid was 25.90±2.09 mm and that of the left was 25.70±2.32mm. The mean AP-2 diameter of the right glenoid was 17.89±1.52 mm and that of the left was 18.15±1.80mm. The mean GCI of the right glenoid was 69.54±4.22 mm and that of the left was 68.65±4.12 mm.

Conclusion: All the parameters showed a very close value for the right and left side. The difference seen between the values of present study and that of other workers could be explained on the basis of ethnic and racial variations. This fact may be taken into consideration while performing shoulder arthroplasty and designing glenoid prostheses in rajasthan population. The current study also recorded a higher percentage of the glenoid notch (>80%) in the anterior margin of the glenoid cavity. While evaluating defects and lesions of the glenoid, this fact could be useful. Thus a sound knowledge of various parameters of the glenoid cavity is important for the anatomists, anthropologists, orthopaedicians and prosthetists.

Key words: Scapula, Glenoid cavity, Glenoid notch, Glenohumeral joint.


  1. Standring S., Gray’s Anatomy- Anatomical basis of clinical practice, 39th ed., p. 819-820.
  2. Breathnach AS. Frazer’s Anatomy of the Human Skeleton.6th ed. London: J and A Churchill Ltd; 1965;63-70.
  3. Prescher A, Klumpen T. The glenoid notch and its relation to the shape of the glenoid cavity of the scapula. J Anat 1997;190(3):457–60.
  4. Churchill RS, Brems JJ, Kotschi H. Glenoid size, inclination, and version: An anatomic study. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2001;10(4):327–32.
  5. Chummy S Sinnatamby. Last’s anatomy, Regional and applied. Eleventh edition. Churchill livingstone (London).2006:50-52.
  6. Iannotti JP, Gabriel JP, Schneck SL, Evans BG, Misra S. The normal glenohumeral relationships. An anatomical study of one hundred and forty shoulders. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1992;74:491-500.
  7. Von Schroeder HP, Kuiper SD, Botte MJ. Osseous anatomy of the scapula. Clinical orthopedics and related research, 2001;383:131-139.
  8. Frutos LR. Determination of sex from the clavicle and scapula in a Guatemalan contemporary rural indigenous population. Am J Forensic Med and Pathol. 2002;23:284-8.
  9. Taser F, Basaloglu H. Morphometric Dimensions of the Scapula. Ege Journal of Medicine 2003;42(2):73-80.
  10. Coskun N, Karaali K, Cevikol C, Demirel BM, Sindel M. Anatomical basics and variations of the scapula in Turkish adults. Saudi Med J 2006;27(9):1320-5.
  11. Karelse A, Kegels L, De Wilde L. The pillars of the scapula. Clin Anat 2007;20:392-9.
  12. Mamatha T, Pai SR, Murlimanju BV, Kalthur SG, Pai MM, Kumar B. Morphometry of Glenoid Cavity. Online J Health Allied Scs 2011;10(3):1-4.
  13. Rajput HB, Vyas KK, Shroff BD. A Study of Morphological Patterns of Glenoid Cavity of Scapula. Natl J Med Res 2012;2(4):504-7.
  14. Patil GV, Kolagi SI, Ramdurg U. Morphometrical study of scapular glenoid cavities. Global Journal of Medical Research: Orthopedics and Musculoskeletal system. 2014;14(2):9-14.
  15. Polguj M, Jedrzejewski KS, Podgorski M, Topol M. Correlation between morphometry of the suprascapular notch and anthropometric measurements of the scapula. Folia Morphol 2011;70(2);109-15.
  16. Dhindsa GS, Singh Z. A study of morphology of glenoid cavity. Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences. 2014;3:7036-43.

Cite this article: Ajay M. Parmar, Bhadresh Vaghela, Kanan P. Shah, G C Agarwal. STUDY OF GLENOID CAVITY OF HUMAN SCAPULA AND ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE. Int J Anat Res 2017;5(3.2):4177-4181. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2017.279