Type of Article:  Original Research

Volume 5; Issue 2.2 (May 2017)

Page No.: 3846-3849

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2017.201


Abhilasha *1, Ajitpal Singh 2.

*1 Demonstrator, Department of Anatomy, J.C.D. Dental College, Sirsa, Haryana, India.

2 Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy, Desh Bhagat Dental College And Hospital,  Desh Bhagat University, Mandi Gobindgarh Punjab, India

Corresponding author: Dr. Abhilasha Setia, Demonstrator, Department of Anatomy, J.C.D. dental college, Sirsa, Haryana, India. Ph: 9466593001

E-Mail: abhilasha.setia@gmail.com


Introduction: Foot dynamic anthropometry has a vital role in medical rehabilitation, sport science, and footwear design among others. There is wide diversity in human foot size and shape depending upon race, age, sex etc. It is known that one’s foot size changes with age. Children and teenagers grow one to three foot sizes each year

Materials and Methods: Present research has been designed to study the bilateral variations in the anatomy of foot. The study is conducted on 400 young females ranging in age from 5.00 –20.99 years, residing in Haryana region of India. The foot length and foot width dimensions (and derived foot index) of female subjects are quantitatively analyzed to find bilateral asymmetry. A total of 400 female subjects divided into eight age groups, i.e. i) 5.00-6.99   ii) 7.00- 8.99  iii) 9.00-10.99 years iv) 11.00-12.99 years  v) 13.00- 14.99  vi) 15.00-16.99  vii) 17.00- 18.99  viii) 19.00-20.99 were measured for Foot length and foot breadth using standard anthropometric techniques. Percentage distribution of asymmetry is found using the formula of Relative index of asymmetry (RIA) given by wolansky (1965).

Results and Conclusion: Results indicate the increasing trends in foot length and foot breadth in all the age groups. Applying Student’s t-test reveals statistically significant bilateral asymmetry in foot length of all the age groups except for age group ranging from 9.00-10.99 whereas bilateral asymmetry for foot breadth is non-significant for three groups i.e. 5.00-6.99, 9.00-10.99 and 15.00-16.99. Present  observation  can be used as  base  line data  for  the  use  of  forensic  science and foot  shape.

Key words: Foot Length, Foot Width, Foot Index, Foot Anthropometry, Bilateral variations, Relative Index of Asymmetry.


  1. Deisinger, j., r. Breining, a.: RLER, Of Virtual Environments 2000. (ERGONAUT, Amsterdam, 2000).
  2. Rout N., Zhang Y.F., Khandual A. and Luxmion A. 3D foot scans to custom shoe last. IJCCT (Special Issue), 2010;1(2,3,4):14-18.
  3. Krauss I., Grau S., Mauch M., Maiwald C. and Horstmann T. Sex related differences in foot shape. Ergonomics, 2008;51(11):1693-1709.
  4. Rys M. and Konz S. Adult foot dimensions. In Advances in Industrial Ergonomics and Safety I. Mittal (ed). London: Taylor and Francis, 1989;189-193.
  5. Ewunonu E.O., Egwu A.O., Eteudo A.N. and Ajoku K.I. Bilateral foot asymmetry and sexual dimorphism in young adult Igbo people of South-Eastern Nigeria. European Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience, 2014;1(4):1-5.
  6. Chantelau E. and Gede A. Foot dimensions of elderly people with and without diabetes mellitus – a data basis for shoe design. Gernotology, 2002;48(4):241-244.
  7. Manna I., Pradhan D., Ghosh S., Kar S.K. and Dhara P. A comparative study of foot dimension between adult male and female and evaluation of foot hazardsdue to using of footwear. Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science, 2001;20(4):241-246.
  8. Bob-Manuel I. and Didia B. Sexual dimorphism in foot dimensions among adult Nigerians. The Internet Journal of Biological Anthropology, 2008;3(1):1-6.
  9. Oladipo G., Bob-Manuel I. and Ezenatein G. Quantitative comparison of foot anthropometry under different weight bearing conditions amongst Nigerians. The Internet Journal of Biological Anthropology, 2008;3(1):1-7.
  10. Suntnoore D., Karaddi S., Babladi P., Mugadlimath A., Garampalli S.S. and Patil B.S. To study determination of height by foot length in females. International Journal of Current Research and Review, 2013;5(16):15-19.
  11. Lohman, TG, Roche, AF and Marforell, ER. Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual. Human Kinetics: Campaign, IL (1988).
  12. Witana C.P., Xiong S., Zhao J. and Goonetilleke R.S. Foot measurements from three- dimensional scans: A comparison and evaluation of different methods. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2006;36:789-807.
  13. , Lee S., Boo J. and Park J. A classification of foot types for designing footwear of the Korean elderly. Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Footwear Biomechanics. E.M. Hennig and A. Stacoff (eds).Switzerland: Dept. of Materials, ETH Zürich, 2001;48-49.
  14. Wolanski, N. The methods of the control of the physical development of children and youth. Panstwowe Zaklady Wadawinctw Lekarskich, Warszawa (1965).

Cite this article: Abhilasha, Ajitpal Singh. MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF BILATERAL VARIATIONS IN THE ANATOMY OF FOOT. Int J Anat Res 2017;5(2.2):3846-3849. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2017.201