IJAR.2016.457

Type of Article:  Original Research

Volume 5; Issue 1 (January 2017)

Page No.: 3318-3323

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2016.457

MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF HUMAN OCCIPITAL CONDYLES FOR SEX DETERMINATION IN DRY ADULT SKULLS

Varsha. T. Sholapurkar *1, R.D.Virupaxi 2, S.P. Desai 3.

*1 Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Rural Medical College, PIMS, Loni, Maharashtra, India.

2 Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy, J N Medical College,KLE University, Belagavi, Karnataka, India.

3 Professor, Department of Anatomy, J N Medical College,KLE University, Belagavi, Karnataka, India.

Address for correspondence: Dr. Varsha. T. Sholapurkar, Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Rural Medical College, PIMS, Loni, Maharashtra, India. E-Mail: varsh212@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Introduction:  Cranium is an excellent indicator for sexual dimorphism by morphometric and morphological analysis. The basi-cranium is protected by a large soft tissue mass comprising of muscles, tendons and ligaments. So in case of fragmentary human remains where no other skeletal remains are preserved the intact occipital region may prove useful for determining the gender. Hence this study was carried out to analyse morphometrically the occipital condyles for sex determination in dry adult skulls.

Material and methods: This study was conducted on 200 occipital condyles of 100 dry adult human skulls (50 male & 50 female). Morphological variants in the shape of occipital condyles were noted. The antero-posterior diameter, transverse diameter and the occipital condyle index of right and left occipital condyles were measured using standard techniques. Students ‘t’ test was employed for statistical analysis.

Results: The commonest shape of right and left occipital condyles was oval. The antero-posterior diameter and the occipital condyle index (right and left) in male skulls was higher than the female skulls. There was no significant difference in the transverse diameter of occipital condyles (right and left) in male and female skulls.

Conclusion: The metric analysis of occipital condyles may be a useful indicator of sex determination of an unknown skull, especially in fragmentary human remains, where no other skeletal remains are preserved.

Key words: Morphometry, Occipital condyle, Antero-posterior diameter, Transverse diameter, Sex determination.

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Cite this article: Varsha. T. Sholapurkar, R.D.Virupaxi, S.P. Desai. MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF HUMAN OCCIPITAL CONDYLES FOR SEX DETERMINATION IN DRY ADULT SKULLS. Int J Anat Res 2017;5(1):3318-3323. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2016.457  
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