Type of Article:  Original Research

Volume 12; Issue 2 (June 2024)

Page No.: 8931-8939

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2024.119

Pattern of Major Sites of Ossification in Foetal Hand and Foot Bones: Implications for Estimating Foetal Maturity

Subhadra Devi Velichety 1, Ravindra Kumar B 2, Yogesh D 3, Meghana S. Poojari 4, Ashok Kumar Jyothi *5.

1 Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy, Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, India. ORCiD: 0000-0002-3995-8449

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Parul Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Parul University, Vadodara, Gujarat, India. ORCiD: 0000-0003-0569-1472

3 Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Shridevi Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Hospital, Sira Road, Tumakuru, Karnataka, India. ORCiD: 0009-0009-8650-7649

4 Department of Anatomy, Basaveshwara Medical College and Hospital, Chitradurga, Karnataka, India. ORCiD: 0000-0001-5654-5294

5 Assistant professor, Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Khammam, Telangana. India. ORCiD: 0000-0003-4453-9262

Corresponding author: Dr. Ashok Kumar Jyothi, Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Khammam, Telangana. India. E-Mail: jyothiashok.anatomist@gmail.com


Background: The estimation of the foetal age at death is challenging in many ways. Therefore, determining foetal maturity is frequently a more plausible solution to the dilemma of foetal viability. In an endeavor to create a maturity spectrum, this research aims at the pattern of major sites of ossification in the foetal hand and foot bones.

Materials and Methods: The onset of main ossification centers in hand and foot bones was examined in 48 foetuses between 8 weeks and 9 months gestational age. Larger foetuses of 6 to 9 months of gestation (31.0 to 45.0 CMS CH lengths) were analyzed by roentgenography and by clearing procedure. Smaller foetuses of 20 to 205 mm CR length were cleared in potassium hydroxide, stained with Alizarin Red‑S, and examined for the appearance of ossification centers in the bones of the hand and foot.

Results: In this investigation, the centers were first formed in the hand bones before the foot bones, on the right side before the left, and in females before males. Ossification spreads from the radial to the ulnar side of the hand and from the tibial to the fibular side of the foot.

Conclusion: Relying on both size‑related and maturity‑related information will only boost the chance of getting close to genuine age when attempting to determine the age of foetal remains. Consequently, it is advised to use as much information as possible rather than taking a simple strategy, such as depending just on body size.

Keywords: Alizarin Red‑S, clearing, defatting, dehydration, KOH, ossification.


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Cite this article: Subhadra Devi Velichety, Ravindra Kumar B, Yogesh D, Meghana S. Poojari, Ashok Kumar Jyothi. Pattern of Major Sites of Ossification in Foetal Hand and Foot Bones: Implications for Estimating Foetal Maturity. Int J Anat Res 2024;12(2):8931-8939. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2024.119