Type of Article:  Case Series

Volume 10; Issue 3 (September 2022)

Page No.: 8439-8444

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2022.183

Hunchback with “S” Shape Spine: Cadaveric Case series

Jayagandhi S *1, Verma S 2, Hussain Saheb S 3, Ambrose M 4, Shishir S 5, M, Ramdas A 6.

*1 Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry, India.

2 Additional Professor, Department of Anatomy, JIPMER, Pondicherry, India.

3 Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, SSIMS & RC, Davangere, Karnataka, India.

4 Professor, Department of Pathology, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry, India.

5 Professor, Department of Orthopedics, Subbaiah Institute of Medical sciences, Purale Shivamogga, Karnataka, India.

6 Professor, Department of Pathology, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry, India.

Address for Correspondence: Dr. Sakkarai Jayagandhi, Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry – 605014, India. E-Mail: sjayagandhi@gamil.com


Introduction:  Kyphosis is a sharp posterior angulation due to localized collapse or wedging of one or more vertebrae and scoliosis is the lateral curvature of the spine. These may occur due to a congenital defect, fracture, and sometimes pathological or spinal tuberculosis.

Materials and Methods: During routine cadaver dissection, four cases of kyphoscoliosis were identified. In the first case, a protrusion on the posterior surface of the trunk of the cadaver at L1 level was observed in a 60-year-old male. The lungs were collapsed and adherent with the pleura and thoracic wall.  The posterior wall of the stomach was adherent to the pancreas and a depression was noted on the anterior surface of abdominal aorta. The T12 and L1 vertebrae were fused, and the spine was deviated to the left side. The anterior aspect of the body of L1 vertebrae was marginally eroded. The second case of kyphoscoliosis was from 80-year-old female cadaver. The descending and abdominal aorta had an abnormal course along the vertebral column, third and fourth cases were observed with slight protrusion and scoliosis but not much changes in the vertebral column.

Results: The cause of the deformity was confirmed by pathological examination of the tissues showed inter vertebral disc degeneration with calcification and ossification and osteopenia. The underlying etiology can be tuberculosis, injuries, or infections.

Conclusion: Severe kyphoscoliosis can affect wide range of systems in the body. It will affect not only the respiratory system also pressure on great vessels as a consequence of bony deformity.

KEY WORDS: Kyphosis, Cadaver Dissection, Kyphoscoliosis, Deformity, Calcification, Ossification.


[1]. Louis solomon Apley’s system of orthopaedics and fractures. 8th edition. 42-44,374, 382,383,,387, 388.
[2]. Standring S, Newell RLM, editors. Gray’s Anatomy:The anatomical basis of clinical practice. 38th Spain:Churchill Livingstone Elsevier;532-537.
[3]. Pajdziński M, Młynarczyk P, Miłkowska-Dymanowska J et al: Kyphoscoliosis – what can we do for respiration besides NIV? Adv Respir Med, 2017;85(6):352-58.
[4]. Xue X, Zhao S. Severe Kyphoscoliosis in a Patient with Goldenhar Syndrome: A Case Report. Case Rep Orthop Res; 2018;1:19-25.
[5]. Zhai J, Zhong M E, Shen J,Tan H, Li Z. Kyphoscoliosis with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome: a case report and literature review. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2019;20:10.
[6]. Imagama S, Kawakami N, Tsuji T, Ohara T, Ishiguro N. Kyphoscoliosis associated with congenital neuromuscular disease with uniform type 1 fibers. Eur Spine J. 2012 Jun;21 Suppl 4:S499-504.
[7]. Ferreira J F, Coutinho M, Duarte C, Silva J D. Kyphoscoliosis: looking beyond the spine.BMJ Case Rep. 2015;1-3.
[8]. Bogusiak K, Puch A, Arkuszewski P. Goldenhar syndrome: current perspectives. World J Pediatr. 2017 Oct;13(5):405-15.
[9]. Mehta B, Nayak C, Savant S, Amladi S. Goldenhar syndrome with unusual features. Indian J Dermatol Vene-reol Leprol. 2008 May-Jun;74(3):254-6.
[10]. Ewart-Toland A, Yankowitz J, Winder A, Imagire R, Cox VA, Aylsworth AS, et al. Oculo auriculo vertebral abnormalities in children of diabetic mothers. Am J Med Genet. 2000 Feb;90(4):303-9.
[11]. Rogala EJ, Drummond DS, Gurr J. Scoliosis: incidence and natural history. A prospective epidemiological study. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 1978;60: 173-176.
[12]. Janicki JA, Alman B. Scoliosis: review of diagnosis and treatment. Paediatr Child Health 2007Nov;12: 771-776.
[13]. Pourquié O. Vertebrate segmentation: from cyclic gene networks to scoliosis. Cell, 2011;145:650-663.
[14]. Giampietro PF, Blank RD, Raggio CL, Merchant S, Jacobsen S, Faciszewski T, Shukla SK, Greenlee AR, Reynolds C,Schowalter DB. Congenital and idiopathic scoliosis:clinical and genetic aspects. Clin Med Res, 2003;1:125-136.
[15]. Lopez-Sosa F, Guille JT, Bowen JR. Rotation of the spine in congenital scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop, 1995;15:528-534.
[16]. Shahcheraghi GH, Hobbi MH. Patterns and progression in congenital scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop, 1999;19:766-775.
[17]. Shands AR, Eisberg HB. The incidence of scoliosis in the state of Delaware. A study of 50,000 minifilms of the chest made during a survey for tuberculosis. J Bone Joint Surg, 1955;37A:1243.
[18]. Day GA, Upadhyay SS, Ho EK, Leong JC, Ip M. Pulmonary function in congenital scoliosis. Spine, 1994;19:1027-1031.
[19]. McMaster MJ, McMaster ME. Prognosis for congenital scoliosis due to a unilateral failure of vertebral segmentation. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2013;95:972-979.
[20]. Calderaro C, Compton J T, Hanley J M,Labianca L,Yamashita K,Weinstein S L. Rare post traumatic kyphoscoliosis of the thoracolumbar spine after posterior fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis:a case report and review of the literature. Lowa Orthop J.2019;39(1):77-80.
[21]. Stevenson A, McCarthy S, Kalmey J, Kulesza R. Anatomical dissection of a cadaver with congenital scoliosis.Folia Morphol.2014 Aug;73(3):389-94.
[22]. Renkema RW, Caron CJ, Mathijssen IM, Wolvius EB, Dunaway DJ, Forrest CR, et al. Vertebral anomalies in craniofacial microsomia: a systematic review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017 Oct;46(10):1319-29.
[23]. Tellermann J, Sablinskis M, Machado PRR, Sablinskis K, Skride A. Long-Term Response to Vasoactive Treatment in a Case of Kyphoscoliosis-Associated Pulmonary Hypertension. Am J Case Rep. 2019;13;20:1505-1508.
[24]. Uehara M , Kuraishi S,Ikegami S, Oba H, Takizawa T, Munakata R, Hatakenaka T,Mimura T,Takahashi J. AbstractScoliosis in Goldenhar syndrome with curve reversal during brace treatment: a case report. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2020;21:685.

Cite this article: Jayagandhi S, Verma S, Hussain Saheb S, Ambrose M, Shishir S, M, Ramdas A. Hunchback with “S” Shape Spine: Cadaveric Case series. Int J Anat Res 2022;10(3):8439-8444. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2022.183