Type of Article:  Original Research

Volume 7; Issue 3.1 (July 2019)

Page No.: 6780-6785

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2019.224


Raveena Paul GR 1, Immanuel Navin Kumar Balla *2, Sreelatha S 3, Rajasree TK 4, Krupa SailajaT 5.

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Malla Reddy Institute of Medical Sciences, Suraram, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

*2 Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Malla Reddy Institute of Medical Sciences, Suraram, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

3 Professor, Department of Anatomy, Malla Reddy Medical College for Women, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

4 Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy, Malla Reddy Institute of Medical Sciences, Suraram, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

5 Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Maheshwara Medical College and Hospital, Chitkul (V), Near Isnapur X Roads, Patancheru, Telangana, India.

Corresponding author: Dr. B. I. Navin Kumar, Associate Professor, H.No: 2-6/2, Gowthami Nagar Colony, Chandanagar, Hyderabad, Telangana. 500050, India. Mobile No: 9490320825 E-Mail: immanuel.navin@gmail.com


Background: An understanding of the location, number, direction and size of nutrient foramina in long bones is very important clinically, especially in orthopedic surgical procedures such as fracture repair, bone grafting, vascularized bone microsurgery, intramedullary reaming and plating,as well as in medico legal cases. An accurate knowledge of the location of the nutrient foramina in long bones should help prevent intraoperative injuries in orthopedic, as well as in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

Aims & Objectives: The aim of our study is to observe the variations in number, location, direction and size of the nutrient foramina of Dried Human Femur.

Materials and Methods: The study comprised 200 dry normal adult femur bones of unknown sex obtained from the Department of Anatomy of various medical colleges of Telangana, India.

Results: The total number of nutrient foramina obtained in 200 femurs was 326. 82 bones had single nutrient foramen (41%), 111 bones had double nutrient foramina (55.5%), 6 bones had triple nutrient foramina (3%), and only 1 bone 4 nutrient foramina(0.5%) and none of the bones showed zero foramen. The size of nutrient foramina were also noted in 200 bones, 60 bones presented small sized foramina (18%), 130 bones presented with medium sized foramina (40%), and rest of 136 bones presented with large sized foramina (42%). The nutrient foramina obeyed the general rule that is, directed away from the growing end of the bone. Among 326 nutrient foramina 149 were located on posterior surface (46%), about 126 foramina were located on medial surface (38.50%), 38 were located on the lateral surface (12%), and the remaining 12 were located on the popliteal surface (6%), and none on the anterior surface.

Conclusion: Knowledge of the localization and number of the nutrient foramina is useful in certain surgical procedures such as bone grafting and microsurgical vascularized bone transplantation, to preserve the circulation intact and for open reduction surgeries.

Key words: Femur, Nutrient Foramina, Nutrient Artery, Posterior surface.


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Cite this article: Raveena Paul GR, Immanuel Navin Kumar Balla, Sreelatha S, Rajasree TK, Krupa SailajaT. VARIATIONS OF THE NUTRIENT FORAMINA IN DRIED HUMAN FEMUR. Int J Anat Res 2019;7(3.1):6780-6785. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2019.224