Type of Article:  Original Research

Volume 7; Issue 2.2 (May 2019)

Page No.: 6499-6503

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2019.151


Srivatsa R 1, Anupama K *2, Shailaja Shetty 3.

1 Intern, M S Ramaiah Medical College. Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

*2 Assistant professor, Department of Anatomy, M S Ramaiah Medical College. Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

3 Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy, M S Ramaiah Medical College. Bangalore, Karnataka India.

Address for Correspondence: Dr Anupama K, Assistant professor, Department of Anatomy, M S Ramaiah Medical College, MSRIT Post, MSR Nagar, Bangalore- 560054, Karnataka, India. Phone No: 9449249001/ 9845442019 E-Mail:  dranukodial@yahoo.co.in


Background: The femoral neck anteversion (FNA) also known as femoral torsion can be defined as the angle formed by the femoral condylar plane and a plane passing through the centre of the femoral neck and head. The change in the angle of femoral anteversion is associated with various clinical conditions. The data established in this study will be useful for various orthopedic procedures like arthroplasties, evaluation of pathologic conditions of the hip.

Aim: To measure the angle of anteversion of femoral neck and determine the variation of this angle on both the sides.

Materials and Methods: 90 dry femora 45 right and 45 left devoid of any gross pathology were obtained from the department of anatomy, M S Ramaiah Medical College. The angle of femoral neck torsion was measured using goniometer in 90 dry bones were measured by Kingsley Olmsted method. The results obtained were tabulated and statistically analyzed.

Results: The mean femoral neck anteversion angle for right femur was 12.09° ± 4.56°, and for left femur it was 12.53° ± 3.28°. Statistical analysis revealed the difference of means of FNA angle between the right and left femora was statistically non significant (p=0.65). Femoral anterversion was observed in 72.22% of bones while 27.77% bones showed retroversion.

Conclusion: The morphology of proximal end of femur is of special interest because of susceptibility of this area to numerous disorders in adults and in paediatric age group and the treatment needs a detailed anatomical knowledge of angle of femoral neck torsion.

Key words: Femoral neck anteversion, Hip replacement surgeries, Osteotomies of femur.


  1. Khan W U, Iqbal M J, Marwat M, Ilahi M. Femoral neck Anteversion: Is the side wise difference significant ?. Gomal J of med sci. 2013; 11 (2): 199-203.
  2. Zalawadia A, Ruparelia S, Shah S, Parekh D, Patel S, Rathod S P, etal. Study of Femoral Neck Anteversion of Adult Dry Femora in Gujarat Region. NJIRM. 2010; 1(3): 7-11.
  3. Standring S. Chapter 79 in Gray’s Anatomy 40th Churchill Livingston. Elsevier; 2009: 1360.
  4. Drake, Richard; Vogl, A. Wayne; Mitchell, Adam W. M. (2009). Gray’s Anatomy for Students E-Book. London: Churchill Livingstone.
  5. Srimathi T., Muthukumar T., Anandarani V.S., Umapathy Sembian., Rameshkumar Subramanian. A Study on Femoral Neck Anteversion and Its Clinical Correlation. JCDR. 2012; 6(2): 155 – 158
  6. Jain A K, Maheshwari AV, Singh M P, Nath S, Bhargava S K. Femoral neck anteversion: A comprehensive Indian study. Indian J Orthop. 2005;39:137-44.
  7. Badjatiya K, Gupta G. Angle of Femoral Torsion in Subjects of Udaipur Region, Rajasthan, India. RRJMHS. 2014; 3( 1): 27-30.
  8. Toogood PA, Skalak A, Cooperman DR. Proximal Femoral Anatomy in the Normal Human Popula- tion. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2009; 467:876–85.
  9. Tayton E. Femoral anteversion: a necessary angle or an evolutionary vestige? J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2007; 89(10): 1283-8.
  10. A R shrikant, K M Arati, Sant S M. The angle of femoral anteversions in Indians. J anat soc India. 2009; 58 (2): 161-165.
  11. Kingsley PC and Olsmtead KL. A study to determine the angle of anteversion of the neck of femur. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 1948; 30-A: 745-751.
  12. Ravichandran D, Devi Sankar K, Bhanu S, Manjunath K Y and Shankar R. Angle of femoral neck anteversion in Andhra Pradesh population of India using Image tool software. JIMSA. 2014; 27(4): 199- 200.
  13. Cibulka MT. Determination and significance of femoral neck anteversion. Phys Ther 2004; 84:550 –558.
  14. Valekar P, Gosai B B, Nagar S K, Mehta C D. Study of angle of femoral torsion in western region of India. NIJRM. 2011; 2(4): 60- 63.

Cite this article: Srivatsa R, Anupama K, Shailaja Shetty. A STUDY OF FEMORAL NECK ANTEVERSION IN SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE. Int J Anat Res 2019;7(2.2):6499-6503. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2019.151