Type of Article:  Original

Volume 7; Issue 2.1 (April 2019)

Page No.: 6345-6352

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2019.115


Subhalakshmi Wahengbam 1, Huidrom Rajshree Devi *2, Gurumayum Tarunkumar Sharma 3, Gaining Gangmei 2, Ningthoujam Debashree Devi 4.

1 Professor, Department of Anatomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Medical Sciences (JNIMS), Porompat, Imphal, Manipur, India.

*2 Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Medical Sciences (JNIMS), Porompat, Imphal, Manipur, India.

3 Demonstrator, Department of Anatomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Medical Sciences (JNIMS), Porompat, Imphal, Manipur, India.

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Medical Sciences (JNIMS), Porompat, Imphal, Manipur.

Corresponding author: Dr. Huidrom Rajshree Devi, Department of Anatomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Medical Sciences (JNIMS), Porompat, Imphal, Manipur. Pin no: 795005. Mobile no: 08731086918. E-Mail: subhawah_e@rediffmail.com


Background and aims: Knowledge of anatomical variations in lung morphology is not only of academic interest but is essential during surgery and also while interpreting various radiological images.  The present study was undertaken with the aim to observe the variations of lung morphology.

Materials and Methods: The shape of the lungs, variations of fissures, lobes and hilar structures were studied in 42 right and 37 left isolated lungs.

Results: Unusual shape was seen in 4 lungs. Among the right lungs, oblique fissure was incomplete in 42.86% and absent in 7.14% and horizontal fissure was incomplete in 61.90% and absent in 19.05%. Inferior accessory fissure (IAF) was present in 21.43% and superior accessory fissure (SAF) in 7.14%. Usual right hilar architecture having a pulmonary artery with 2 pulmonary veins and 2 bronchi was not seen in any case however, the usual architecture with a superior lobar artery was seen in 28.57% cases. Among the left lungs, oblique fissure was incomplete in 40.54% and absent in 2.70%. Horizontal fissure was present in 24.32%, left minor fissure (LMF) in 29.73%, inferior accessory fissure (IAF) in 43.24% and superior accessory fissure (SAF) in 2.70%. Usual left hilar architecture having a pulmonary artery, 2 pulmonary veins and a bronchus was seen in 54.06%.

Conclusion: The knowledge of variations in the lung morphology observed in this study will be of academic interest and also useful for diagnostic and clinical management of pulmonary and even cardiac cases.

Key words: Fissures, Lobes, Hilum, Broncho-pulmonary segments.


  1. Muresian H. Pluera, lungs, trachea and bronchi In: Standring S, Gray’s Anatomy. The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice. 41st Elsevier Limited, UK, 2016: 953-969.
  2. Rosse C, Gaddum-Rosse P. Thorax. In: Hollinshed’s Textbook of Anatomy. Lipincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1997:441-61.
  3. Meenakshi S, Manjunath KY, Balasubramanyam V. Morphological variations of the lung fissures and lobes. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2004; 46(3):179-182.
  4. Magadum A, Dixit D, Bhimalli S. Fissures and lobes of lung – an anatomical study and its clinical significance. Int J Cur Res Rev. 2015; 7(3): 8-12.
  5. Godwin JD, Tarver RD. Accessory fissures of the lung. Am J Roentgenol. 1985; 144(1):39-47.
  6. Aldur MM, Denk CC, Celik HH, Tascioglu AB. An accessory fissure in the lower lobe of the right lung. Morphologie. 1997; 81: 5–7.
  7. Ariyurek OM, Gulsun M, Demirkazik FB. Accessory fissures of the lung: evaluation by high-resolution computed tomography.Eur Radiol. 2001; 11: 2449–2253.
  8. Craig SR, Walker WS. A proposed anatomical classification of the pulmonary fissures. J R Coll Surg Edinb. 1997; 42:233-4.
  9. George BM, Nayak SB, Marpalli S. Morphological variations of the lungs: a study conducted on Indian cadavers. Anat Cell Biol. 2014; 47:253-258.
  10. Medlar EM. Variations in interlobar fissures. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther. 1947; 57: 723-725.
  11. Lukose R, Paul S,  Sunitha,  Daniel  M,  Abraham  SM, Alex  ME, et al. Morphology  of  the  lungs:  Variations  in the  lobes  and fissures. Biomedicine. 1999; 19: 227-232.
  12. Prakash, Bharadwaj AK, Shashirekha M, Suma HY, Krishna GG, Singh G. Lung morphology:  a cadaver study in Indian population. IJAE. 2010; 115:235-240
  13. Quadros LS, Palanichamy R, D’souza AS. Variations in the lobes and fissures of lungs – a study in South Indian lung specimens Eur. J. Anat. 2014; 18 (1): 16-20.
  14. Nene AR, Gajendra KS, Sarma MVR. Lung lobes and fissures: a morphological study.  2011; 5: 30-38.
  15. Larsen WJ. Human Embryology. Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1993: 111-30.
  16. Richards JMJ, Dunning J, Oparka J, Carnochan FM, Walker WS. Video–assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy: The Edinburg posterior approach. Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery. 2012; 1(1).
  17. Waldhausen JA, Pierce WS, Campbell DB. Thoracic Surgery. In: Surgery of the Chest. 6th Mosby, St Louis, Missouri, 1996:134.
  18. Pimpec-Barthes F L, Arame A, Pricopi C, Riquet M. Prevention of middle lobe torsion or bronchial plication using anti-adhesive membrane: a simple, safe and uncomplicated technique. Eur J Cardiothoracic Surg. 2011; 39(6):1059-1069.
  19. Tarver RD. How common are incomplete pulmonary fissures, and what is their clinical significance? AJR Am J Roentgenol.1995; 164(3):761.
  20. Murlimanju BV, Massand A, Madhyastha S, Pai MM, Prabha LV, SaralayaVV. Anatomical variations of arrangement of structures at the pulmonary hilum: a cadaveric study. Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 2017; 39(1):51-56.
  21. Matsumoto K, Yamasaki N, Tsuchiya T, Miyazaki T, Tomoshige K, Hayashi H, et al. Three-dimensional computed tomography for a mediastinal basal pulmonary artery. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2012; 94(5): 115-116.
  22. Subotich D, Mandarich D, Milisavljevich M, Filipovich B, Nikolich V. Variations of pulmonary vessels: some practical implications for lung resections. Clin Anat. 2009; 22: 698-705.
  23. Rajeshwari MS, Ranganath P. Variations in Draining Patterns of Right Pulmonary Veins at the Hilum and an Anatomical Classification. ISRN Pulmonology.2012:1-4.
  24. Thorning C, Hamady M,. Liaw JV, Juli C, Lim PB, Dhawan R et al. CT evaluation of pulmonary venous anatomy variation in patients undergoing catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation, Clin Imaging. 2011; 35(1):1–9.
  25. Marom E, Herndon J, Kim Y, McAdams HP. Variations in pulmonary venous drainage to the left atrium: implications for radiofrequency ablation, Radiology. 2004; 230(3):824–829.
  26. Sugimoto S, Izumiyama O, Yamashita A, Baba M, Hasegawa T. Anatomy of inferior pulmonary vein should be clarified in lower lobectomy. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 1998; 66(5):1799–1800.
  27. Sathidevi VK. Anatomical arrangement of the lobar bronchi, bronchopulmonary segments and their variations. Int J Res Med Sci. 2016; 4(11):4928-4932.

Cite this article: Subhalakshmi Wahengbam, Huidrom Rajshree Devi, Gurumayum Tarunkumar Sharma, Gaining Gangmei, Ningthoujam Debashree Devi.  STUDY OF HUMAN LUNGS. Int J Anat Res 2019;7(2.1):6345-6352. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2019.115