Type of Article:  Original Research

Volume 6; Issue 2.1 (April 2018)

Page No.: 5149-5155

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2018.142


Muthuprasad Puthuraj 1, Sumathi Shanmugam *2.

1 Senior Assistant Professor, KAPV Government Medical College, Thiruchirapalli.

*2 Senior Assistant Professor, Thanjavur Medical College, Thanjavur.

Address for Correspondence: Dr.Sumathi Shanmugam, MS, 59, First Street, North Natarajapuram, Thanjavur-613004, Tamil Nadu, India. E-Mail: tnjsumathi@gmail.com


Background: The placenta being a foetal organ, undergoes the same stress and strain to which the foetus is exposed. Common yet life threatening complications of Pregnancy like Gestational Diabetes, Hypertension, Anaemia and Intra uterine growth retardation result in both macroscopic as well as microscopic changes in the placenta. Hence study of the placenta will give a valuable insight in cases of adverse foetal outcome.

Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on  a total of two hundred and ninety two  freshly delivered placentae with umbilical cord obtained from the labour rooms and operating theatres of the Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. Exclusion criteria was multiple pregnancy. Inclusion criteria’s were  normal uncomplicated primigravida and multigravida  and pathological factors complicating pregnancy like Anaemia, Gestational Diabetes mellitus, Pregnancy induced Hypertension and prematurity. The 292 placentae were divided into four categories according to the risk factors and clinical diagnosis of pregnant women namely normal patients(147), patients with Pregnancy induced hypertension(15), Gestational Diabetes mellitus(30) , anaemia(65) and preterm(35).

Results: The circular type of placenta is the common shape of placenta. The diameter of the placenta is increased in anaemia ,gestational diabetes and decreased in prematurity. The weight of the placenta is increased in gestational diabetes mellitus, anaemia and decreased in prematurity. The number of maternal cotyledons is decreased in prematurity and increased in gestational diabetes  mellitus. The eccentric type of cord attachment is the most common type in complicated pregnancies.

Conclusion: The diagnosis of such risk factors in pregnancies during antenatal period and early intervention will improve the perinatal outcome.

Key words: Placenta, Macroscopic Morphology, Complicated Pregnancies.


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Cite this article: Muthuprasad Puthuraj, Sumathi Shanmugam. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MACROSCOPIC MORPHOLOGY OF PLACENTA AMONG NORMAL AND COMPLICATED PREGNANCIES. Int J Anat Res 2018;6(2.1):5149-5155. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2018.142