Type of Article:  Original Research

Volume 5; Issue 3.2 (August 2017)

Page No.: 4284-4289

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2017.310


Mohini M.Joshi *1, Sushama K. Chavan 2.

*1 Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy Rural Medical College, Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences, Loni, Maharashtra, India.

*2 Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy, Rural Medical College, Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences, Loni, Maharashtra, India.

Address for Correspondence: Dr. Mohini M. Joshi,  Associate Professor,  Department of Anatomy, Rural Medical College, Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences Loni, Dist. Ahmadnagar Maharashtra, India.  Mobile No: +919823064062,  E-Mail: atharvamohini@gmail.com


Background: The liver is the largest of the abdominal viscera, occupying a substantial portion of the upper abdominal cavity. It is essential to have knowledge of the normal and variant liver anatomy.

Objective: Objective of the present study was to study morphology of liver and its variations.

Materials and Methods: The hundred liver specimens available in the department of Anatomy were studied. The liver specimens were numbered and photographs were taken along with proper documentation. Caudate and quadrate   lobes of the liver were studied in detail for the size, shape, accessory fissures, and accessory lobes. For each of the parameters, the mean, standard deviation (S.D.) and range (minimum value-maximum value) was calculated.

Result: The mean length of the caudate lobe was 5.33±1.01, breadth 2.75 ±0.65 and depth 1.93±0.55 while length of the quadrate lobe was 5.91±1.18 and breadth 3.00±0.80. The mean length of the right lobe was 13.62±2.23, breadth 8.13±1.45 while length of the left lobe was 12.20±2.12 and breadth 7.65±1.51. Morphological variations like caudate process, accessory fissures, Pons Hepatis, lingual process, papillary process, accessory lobes and variations in shapes of caudate and quadrate lobes were observed and reported.

Conclusion: This study highlights some of the variations in the lobes and fissures of the liver. Various shapes of the caudate lobe and quadrate lobe were encountered. Knowledge of anatomical and morphological variations of liver is important for anatomist as well as for radiologist and hepatobiliary surgeons.  

Key words: Liver, Morphology, Quadrate, Caudate, Variations.


  1. Standring S. Gray’s Anatomy. The anatomical basis of clinical practice. 38th Edition. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, London; 1999:1795-1809.
  2. Sahani DV, Kalva SP. Imaging the liver. Oncologist 2004;9:385-97.
  3. Sahni D, Jit I, Sodhi L. Gross anatomy of the caudate lobe of the liver. J Anat. Soc. India. 2000;49(2):123-126.
  4. Reddy N, Joshi SS, Mittal PS, et al. Morphology of caudate and quadrate lobes of liver. J. Evolution Med. Dent. Sci. 2017;6(11):897-901, DOI: 10.14260/Jemds/2017/192.
  5. Joshi SD, Joshi SS, Athavale SA. Some interesting observations on the surface features of the liver and their clinical implications. Singapore Med J. 2009;50(7):715-19.
  6. Sunitha V, Neelee J. A New Insight into the Morphology of the Human Liver: A Cadaveric Study. ISRN Anatomy 2013, Article I http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2013/689564
  7. Auh YH, Lim JH, Kim KW, et al. Loculated fluid collections in hepatic fissures and recesses: CT appearance and potential pitfalls. Radiographics 1994;14:529-40.
  8. Nagato A. C., Silva A. S., Trajano E. T. L. et al. Quantitative and morphological analyses of different types of human liver. J. Morphol. Sci., 2011;28(4):275-279.
  9. Shetty S., Kantha L. et al. A Study of Variant External Features on Cadaveric Livers. Anatomica Karnataka. 2011;5(3): 12-16.
  10. Macchi V., Feltrin G., Parenti A. Diaphragmatic sulci and portal fissures. J. Anat., 2003;202:303-308.
  11. Macchi V., Porzionato A., Parenti A. et al.. Main accessory sulcus of the liver. Clin. Anat., 2005;18(1):39-45.
  12. Saritha S, Ramani, Nagajyothi, et al. Cadaveric study of morphological variations in the human liver and its clinical importance. International Journal Of Medical Science And Clinical Inventions 2015;2(6):1020-31
  13. Patil S, Sethi M, Kakar S. Morphological study of human liver and its surgical importance. Int J Anat Res 2014;2(2):310-4.
  14. Aktan ZA, Savas R, Pinar Y, Arslan O. Lobe and segment anomalies of the liver. J Anat Soc India. 2001;50:15-6.
  15. Ebby S, Ambike MV. Anatomical variation of ligamentum teres of liver-a case report. Webmed Central Anatomy 2012;3(5):WMC003389
  16. Sarala HS, Jyothilakshmi TK, Shubha R. Morphological variations of caudate lobe of the liver and their clinical implications. Int J Anat Res 2015;3(2):980-3.
  17. Ranjana Singh Arya, Arya RC, Kumar A et al  Study of Cadaveric Liver Lobe Anomaly Indian Journal of Clinical Anatomy and Physiology 2015;2(4):212-215.

Cite this article: Mohini M.Joshi, Sushama K. Chavan. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF ADULT HUMAN CADAVERIC LIVER. Int J Anat Res 2017;5(3.2):4284-4289. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2017.310