Type of Article : Original Research
Year: 2015 | Volume 3 | Issue 5 | Page No. 1215-1220
Date of Publication: 11-10-2015
EFFECTS OF VIEWING DISTANCE AND HEAD FLEXION ON POSTURAL CONTROL DURING ONE AND TWO-LEGGED STANCE
T. Osamu Aoki *1, Yoshitaka Otani 2, Shinichiro Morishita 3, Kazuhisa Domen 3.
*1 Faculty of Rehabilitation, Shijonawate Gakuen University, 5-11-10 Houjo, Daito, Osaka, Japan.
2 Faculty of Rehabilitation, Kobe International University, 9-1-6 Kouyocho-naka, Higashinada, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan.
3 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, Japan.
Corresponding author: Dr. Osamu Aoki, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Shijonawate Gakuen University, 5-11-10 Houjo, Daito, Osaka 574-0011, Japan. Tel.: +81-72-863-5043,
Fax: +81 72 863 5022.
Background: Short viewing distances and head flexion decrease and increase postural sway, respectively. Few studies have examined the effects of these factors during one-legged stance or voluntary body leaning within the base of support, both of which often occur in daily life. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of viewing distance and head flexion in several postural control conditions.
Materials and Methods: Fifteen healthy young subjects participated in this study, and center of pressure (CoP) displacement was measured in five conditions (gazing 600 cm forward, 150 cm forward, downward, forward with eyes closed, and downward with eyes closed) during two- and one-legged stances and voluntary body leaning. Measurements included that the root mean square (RMS) of the anteroposterior (A-P) and mediolateral (M-L) directions during two- and one-legged stance, and maximum A-P and M-L distances during voluntary body leaning.
Results: Our results showed that the M-L RMS of 150 cm was less than that of 600 cm during one-legged stance (p = 0.01). Moreover, the A-P and M-L RMS values of downward gazing were lower than those of 600 cm (A-P RMS: p = 0.003 and M-L RMS: p = 0.002). The M-L distances of 150 cm and downward were larger than that of 600 cm (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively).
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the effect of viewing distance was more evident during one-legged stance and voluntary body leaning.
KEY WORDS: Balance, Vision, Stance, Head flexion, Postural sway.
- Berg K. Balance and its measure in the elderly: a review. Physiotherapy canada. 1989;41(5):240-6.
- Bles W, Kapteyn TS, Brandt T, Arnold F. The mechanism of physiological height vertigo. II. Posturography. Acta Otolaryngol. 1980;89:534-40.
- Guerraz M, Sakellari V, Burchill P, Bronstein AM. Influence of motion parallax in the control of spontaneous body sway. Experimental brain research. 2000;131(2):244-52. doi:10.1007/s002219900307.
- Kapoula Z, Le TT. Effects of distance and gaze position on postural stability in young and old subjects. Experimental brain research. 2006;173(3):438-45. doi:10.1007/s00221-006-0382-1.
- Le TT, Kapoula Z. Distance impairs postural stability only under binocular viewing. Vision research. 2006;46(21):3586-93. doi:10.1016/j.visres.2006.06.018.
- Moraes R LA, Barela JA. Monocular vision and increased distance reducing the effects of visual manipulation on body sway. Neuroscience letters. 2009;460(3):209-13. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2009.05.078.
- Paulus WM, Straube A, Brandt Th. Visual stabilization of posture. Physiological stimulus characteristics and clinical aspects. Brain : a journal of neurology. 1984;107:1143-63.
- Aoki O, Otani Y, Morishita S, Domen K. Influence of gaze distance and downward gazing on postural sway in hemiplegic stroke patients. Experimental brain research. 2014;232(2):535-43. doi:10.1007/s00221-013-3762-3.
- Brandt Th, Krafczyk S, Malsbenden I. Postural imbalance with head extension. improvement by training as a model for ataxia therapy. Annals New York Academy of Sciences. 1981;374:636-49.
- Buckley JG, Anand V, Scally A, Elliott DB. Does head extension and flexion increase postural instability in elderly subjects when visual information is kept constant? Gait & posture. 2005;21(1):59-64. doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2003.11.005.
- Jackson RT, Epstein CM. Effect of head extension on equilibrium in normal subjects. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1991;100:63-7.
- Goldie PA EO, Bach TM. Steadiness in one-legged stance: development of a reliable force-platform testing procedure. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1992;73:348-54.
- King MB, Judge JO, Wolfson L. Functional base of support decreases with age. Journal of gerontology. 1994;49(6):M258-M63.
- Girardi M KH, Amin M, Hughes LF. Predicting fall risks in an elderly population: Computer dynamic posturography versus electronystagmography test results. Laryngoscope. 2001;111(9):1528-32.
- Goldie PA, Bach TM, Evans OM. Force platform measures for evaluating postural control: reliability and validity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1989;70(7):510-7.
- Owings TM, Pavol MJ, Foley KT, Grabiner MD. Measures of postrual stability are not predictors of recovery from large postrual disturbances in healthy older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000;48:42-50.
- Fox CR. Some visual influences on human postural equilibrium binocular versus monocular fixation. Perception & Psychophysics. 1990;47(5):409-22.
- Black FO, Wall Ⅲ C, Nashner LM. Effects of visual and support surface orientation references upon postural control in vestibular deficient subjects. Acta Otolaryngol. 1983;95:199-210.
- Nashner LM BF, Wall C. Adaptation to altered support and visual conditions during stance: Patients with vestibular deficits. J Neurosci. 1982;2(5):536-44.
- Kogler A, Lindfors J, Odkvist LM, Ledin T. Postural stability using different neck positions in normal subjects and patients with neck trauma. Acta Otolaryngol. 2000;120:151-5.
- Paulus W SA, Krafczyk, Brandt TS. Differential effects of retinal target displacement, changing size and changing diparity in the control of anterior / posterior and lateral body sway. Experimental brain research. 1989;78:243-52.
Osamu Aoki, Yoshitaka Otani, Shinichiro Morishita, Kazuhisa Domen. EFFECTS OF VIEWING DISTANCE AND HEAD FLEXION ON POSTURAL CONTROL DURING ONE AND TWO-LEGGED STANCE. Int J Physiother Res 2015;3(5):1215-1220. DOI: 10.16965/ijpr.2015.179