Type of Article : Original Research
Year: 2015 | Volume 3 | Issue 5 | Page No. 1208-1214
Date of Publication: 11-10-2015
A STUDY TO DETERMINE THE REFERENCE VALUES FOR TWO MINUTE WALK DISTANCE IN HEALTHY INDIAN ADULTS
T. Krishna Priya 1, Shaswat Verma *2.
1 Assistant Professor, Apollo College of Physiotherapy, Apollo Hospitals, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
*2 Assistant Professor, Department of Physiotherapy, M.S.Ramaiah Medical College and Hospitals, Bangalore, India.
Corresponding author: Shaswat Verma, Assistant Professor, Department of Physiotherapy, M.S.Ramaiah Medical College and Hospitals, Bangalore, India.
Background: The use of functional scales to assess the prognosis of the individuals is widely being encouraged by the International classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Two, six and twelve minute walk tests are the existing functional walk tests, among which 6MWT is being considered as the gold standard. Patients in acute stages of illnesses and early stages of recovery, it is difficult and tiring to accomplish a 6MWT. 2MWT is presently being used as a pre and post-test. To comment on the status of the patient and the test results in the first attempt, it is necessary to look at the reference values of 2MWT.
Purpose of the study: This study aims to establish reference values for 2MWT in healthy Indian adults.
Objective of the study: To establish reference values for 2 minute walk distance in healthy Indian adults of 20-80 years age.
Methods: Three hundred subjects met the inclusion criteria through convenience sampling. Two trials of 2MWT were administered. Instructions for the test were adopted from American Thoracic Society guidelines for 6MWT. Out of the two trials, the one in which more distance was covered by the subject was taken for the analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data.
Results: The mean 2MWD was 182.69 + 32.40 meters. 2MWD had shown moderate significant negative correlation with age (r = -0.58) and weak but significant positive correlation with height (r = 0.35). The correlations with weight (r= 0.1) and BMI (r= -0.13) were found to be negligible. It was also found that males walked 21.55 + 3.5 meters more than females and aye2MWD during the second trial was found to be 3.011 + 1.44 meters greater than the first trial.
Conclusion: The average distance covered by a healthy Indian individual is approximately 182.69 + 32.40 meters in 2 minutes duration.
Implication: Patients in early stages of rehabilitation, early post-operative period and patients with severe disability, found 6MWT difficult, intolerable, time consuming and too fatiguing. So, 2MWT is being used as an outcome scale of priority in these populations recently. It is clinically more useful when compared to 6MWT.
KEY WORDS: 2 minute walk test, Functional capacity, Indian population, Exercise capacity, Functional walking test.
- Lauwick, S., Kim, D.J., Mistraletti, G., Carli, F. Functional Walking Capacity as an Outcome Measure of Laparoscopic Prostatectomy: The Effect of Lidocaine Infusion British Journal of Anaesthesia, 2009;103(2):213–219.
- Fleg J.L., Pina I.L., Balady G.J., Chaitman B.R., Fletcher B., Lavie C., Limacher M.C., Stein R.A., Williams M., Bazzarre T. Assessment of Functional Capacity in Clinical and Research Applications : An Advisory From the Committee on Exercise, Rehabilitation, and Prevention, Council on Clinical Cardiology, American Heart Association. Circulation, 2000;102(13):1591–1597.
- Solway S., Brooks D., Lacasse Y., Thomas S. A Qualitative Systematic Overview of the Measurement Properties of Functional Walk Tests Used in the Cardiorespiratory Domain. Chest Journal, 2001;119(1):256–270.
- Butland R.J., Pang J., Gross E.R., Woodcock A.A., Geddes D.M. Two-, Six-, and 12-Minute Walking Tests in Respiratory Disease. British medical journal (Clinical research ed.), 1982;284(6329):1607
- Enright P.L., McBurnie M.A., Bittner V., Tracy R.P., McNamara R., Arnold A., Newman A.B., Cardiovascular Health Study. The 6-Min Walk Test: A Quick Measure of Functional Status in Elderly Adults’. Chest 2003;123(2):387–398.
- Enright P.L., Sherrill D.L. Reference Equations for the Six-Minute Walk in Healthy Adults. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1998;158(5): 1384–1387.
- Eiser N., Willsher D., Doré C.J. Reliability, Repeatability and Sensitivity to Change of Externally and Self-Paced Walking Tests in COPD Patients. Respiratory Medicine, 2003;97(4):407–414.
- Casanova C., Celli BR, Barria P, Casas A, Cote C, de Torres JP, Jardim J. The 6-min walk distance in healthy subjects: reference standards from seven countries. Eur Respir J. 2011;37:150-156.
- Vyoma Bharat Dani. A study to determine the reference value for six minute walk distance in healthy Indian Adults. Indian Journal of Physiotherapy & Occupatioanl Therapy, October-December 2013;7(4):267-270.
- Camarri B., Eastwood P.R., Cecins N.M., Thompson P.J., Jenkins S. Six Minute Walk Distance in Healthy Subjects Aged 55–75 Years. Respiratory Medicine.2006;100(4): 658–665.
- Chetta A., Zanini A., Pisi G., Aiello M., Tzani P., Neri M., Olivieri D. Reference Values for the 6-Min Walk Test in Healthy Subjects 20–50 Years Old, Respiratory Medicine, 2006;100(9):1573–1578.
- Moriello C., Mayo N.E., Feldman L., Carli F. Validating the Six-Minute Walk Test as a Measure of Recovery After Elective Colon Resection Surgery. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2008;89(6):1083–1089.
- Ramanathan R., Chandrasekaran B. Reference Equations for 6-Min Walk Test in Healthy Indian Subjects (25-80 Years). Lung India, 2014;31(1):35.
- Leung A.S., Chan K.K., Sykes K., Chan K.S. Reliability, Validity, and Responsiveness of a 2-Min Walk Test to Assess Exercise Capacity of COPD Patients’. CHEST Journal, 2006;130 (1): 119–125.
- Brooks D., Parsons J., Tran D., Jeng B., Gorczyca B., Newton J., Lo V., Dear C., Silaj E., Hawn T. The Two-Minute Walk Test as a Measure of Functional Capacity in Cardiac Surgery Patients. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2004;85(9): 1525–1530.
- Brooks D., Parsons J., Hunter J.P., Devlin M., Walker J. The 2-Minute Walk Test as a Measure of Functional Improvement in Persons with Lower Limb Amputation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2001;82(10):1478–1483.
- John N., Thangakunam B., Devasahayam A.J., Peravali V., Christopher D.J. Maximal Oxygen Uptake Is Lower for a Healthy Indian Population Compared to White Populations. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, 2011;31(5): 322–327.
- Whittaker AL., Sutton AJ., Beardsmore CS. Are ethnic differences in lung function explained by chest size? Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed, 2005;90:423-428.
- Donnelly PM., Yang TS., Peat JK., Woolcock AJ. What factors explain racial differences in lung volumes? Eur Respir J, 1991;4:829-838.
- Iwama, A.M., Andrade, G.N., Shima, P., Tanni, S.E., Godoy, I., and Dourado, V.Z. The Six-Minute Walk Test and Body Weight-Walk Distance Product in Healthy Brazilian Subjects. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 2009;42(11):1080–1085.
- Hortobágyi, T., Mizelle, C., Beam, S., and DeVita, P. Old Adults Perform Activities of Daily Living near Their Maximal Capabilities. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 2003;58(5):M453–M460.
- Lanza, I.R. and Nair, K.S. Muscle Mitochondrial Changes with Aging and Exercise. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2009;89(1):467S–71S.
- Stathokostas, L., Jacob-Johnson, S., Petrella, R.J., and Paterson, D.H. Longitudinal Changes in Aerobic Power in Older Men and Women. Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md.: 1985), 2004;97(2):781–789.
- Astrup, A., Gotzsche, P.C., Werken, K. van de, Ranneries, C., Toubro, S., Raben, A., and Buemann, B. Meta-Analysis of Resting Metabolic Rate in Formerly Obese Subjects. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1999;69(6):1117–1122.
- Lord, S.R. and Menz, H.B. Physiologic, Psychologic, and Health Predictors of 6-Minute Walk Performance in Older People. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2002;83 (7):907–911.
T. Krishna Priya, Shaswat Verma. A STUDY TO DETERMINE THE REFERENCE VALUES FOR TWO MINUTE WALK DISTANCE IN HEALTHY INDIAN ADULTS. Int J Physiother Res 2015;3(5):1208-1214. DOI: 10.16965/ijpr.2015.178