Type of Article : Original Research
Year: 2015 | Volume 3 | Issue 4 | Page No. 1188-1196
Date of Publication: 11-08-2015
MAXIMAL RESPIRATORY PRESSURES AND THEIR CORRELATES IN NORMAL INDIAN ADULT POPULATION: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY
Veena Kiran Nambiar *1, Savita Ravindra 2.
1 Associate Professor, Department of Physiotherapy, M.S.Ramaiah Medical College and Associate Professor Hospitals, Bangalore, India.
2 Professor and HOD, Department of Physiotherapy,M.S.Ramaiah Medical College and Hospitals,Bangalore, India.
Corresponding author: Veena Kiran Nambiar, Associate Professor, Department of Physiotherapy, M.S.Ramaiah Medical College and Hospitals, Bangalore, India.
Background: The measurement of maximum static inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximum static expiratory pressure (MEP) is important in the diagnosis of respiratory muscle dysfunction. There is a paucity of data done on MIP and MEP across the decades in Indian population to predict normal values for maximal respiratory pressures.
Materials and Methods: Five hundred subjects were selected through purposive sampling. Each age group had 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females). Pulmonary function tests and baseline data of demographic and anthropometric data of the normal subjects like age, height, weight and body mass index was recorded. The maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and Maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) was measured with a portable respiratory pressure meter (Micro RPM) using a standard protocol.
Results: MIP and MEP were studied across all decades and the mean values obtained were comparable with that of the Caucasian population in previous studies. Also MIP and MEP mean values were significantly higher in males as compared to females across the decades. Age showed a statistically significant negative correlation with both MIP and MEP with pearsons correlation coefficient. In males, MIP and MEP correlated negatively with height and weight. In females MIP correlated negatively with height and MEP correlated positively with height and weight.
Conclusion: The decade wise mean values obtained for MIP and MEP can be used as a reference to determine respiratory muscle strength in normal Indian adult population.
KEY WORDS: Maximal Respiratory Pressures, Adults, MIP, MEP, Normal Values, Reference Values.
- Dudley F Rochester. The respiratory muscles in COPD state of the Art. Chest 1984 June;85 suppl:47-50.
- Tests of respiratory muscle strength. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 2002;166:528-543.
- Weiner, Paltiel, McConnell, Alison. Respiratory muscle training in COPD: Inspiratory expiratory or both? Current opinion in pulmonary medicine 2005 March;11:140-144.
- Wilson, Cooke, Edwards, Spiro. Predicted normal values for maximal respiratory pressures in Caucasian adults and children. Thorax 1984;39:535-538.
- Johan, CC.Chan, Chia, Chan O.Y, Y.T. Wang. Maximal respiratory pressures in adult Chinese, Malays and Indians. European respiratory Journal 1997;10:2825-2828.
- Van der Palen, Rea et al, Respiratory muscle strength and the risk of incident cardiovascular events. Thorax 2004 Dec;59(12):1063-1067.
- Troosters.T, Gosselink.R, Deerames.M. Respiratory muscle assessment. European respiratory 2005;31:57-71.
- S.H.Wilson, N T Cooke, RHTEdwards, SGSpiro. Predicted normal values for maximal respiratory pressures in Caucasian adults and children.Thorax 1984;39:535-538
- A.Johan, C.C.Chan, H.P.Chia, O.Y.Chan, Y.T.Wang. Maximal respiratory pressures in adult chinese,malays and Indians.EurRespir J 1997;10:2825-2828
- BabakAmra, HassanSalehi, SohrabSalimi, Mohammad Golshan. Reference values for maximal respiratory pressures.Tanafos 2005;4(14):19-23.
- Nattha Muangritdech, Dr.WilaiwanKhrisanapant, Dr.Wannapa Ishida et al, A comparision of respiratory pressures in normal male and female Thai adults. Graduate Research Conference 2014;1633-1640.
- Lida Maritza Gil Obando, Alexandra Lopez, Carmen Liliana Avila. Normal values of the maximal respiratory pressures in healthy people older than 20 years old in the city of Manizales-Columbia.Columbiamedica 2012;43(2):119-25.
- Costa D, Goncalves HA, Lima LP, lke D, Cancelliero KM, Montebelo Ml. New reference values for maximal respiratory pressures in the Brazilian population. J Bras Pneumol 2010; 36:306-12.
- A. Gopalakrishna, K. Vaishali, V.Prem, Praveen Aaron. Normative values for maximal respiratory pressures in an Indian Mangalore population: A cross-sectional pilot study. Lung India 2011;28:247–252.
- DayaneMontemezzo et al. Influence of four interfaces in the assessment of maximal respiratory pressures. Respiratory care 2012;57(3):392-398.
- Smyth RJ, Chapman KR, Rebuck AS. Maximal Inspiratory and expiratory pressures in adolescents. Chest 1984;86:568-72.
- Ringqvist T. The Ventilatory capacity in healthy subjects: An analysis of causal factors with special reference to the respiratory forces. Scan J Clin Lab Invest Suppl 1996; 88 :5-179.
- Black LF, Hyatt RE. Maximal respiratory pressure: Normal values and relationships to age and sex. Am Rev Respir Dis 1969;99:696-702.
- Evan JA, White WA. The assessment of maximal respiratory mouth pressure in adults.Resp Care 2009;54:1348-59.
- American thoracic society / European respiratory society ATS/ERS Statement on respiratory muscle testing. Am J RespirCrit Care Med 2002:166(4):518-629.
- Simoes RP. Deus AP, Auad MA. Dionisio J, Mazzonetto M. Borghi-Silva A. Maximal Respiratory pressure in healthy 20 to 89 year old sedentary individuals of central Sao Paulo state. Rev Bras Fisioter. 2010;14(1):60-67.
- Pessoa IMBS, HouriNeto M, Montemezzo D. Silva LAM, Andrade AD, Parreira VF. Predictive equations for respiratoty muscle strength according to international and Brazilian guidelines. Braz J PhysTher. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/bjpt-rbf.2014.0044.
Veena Kiran Nambiar, Savita Ravindra. MAXIMAL RESPIRATORY PRESSURES AND THEIR CORRELATES IN NORMAL INDIAN ADULT POPULATION: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY. Int J Physiother Res 2015;3(4):1188-1196. DOI: 10.16965/ijpr.2015.169