International Journal of Physiotherapy and Research

Welcome to International Journal of Physiotherapy and Research



Type of Article : Original

Year: 2014 | Volume 2 | Issue 6 | Page No. 751-756

Date of Publication: 23-11-2014

DOI: 10.16965/ijpr.2014.678


K.Pujitha *1, G.Parvathi 2, K. Muni Sekhar 3.  

*1Tutor, Department of Physiology, Sri Padmavathi Medical College (Women), SVIMS University, Tirupati, India.
2 Professor & HOD, Department Of Physiology, Sri Padmavathi Medical College (Women), SVIMS University, Tirupati, India.
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, Sri Padmavathi Medical College (Women), SVIMS University, Tirupati, India.

Corresponding author: K. Pujitha, Tutor, Department Of Physiology, Sri Padmavathi Medical College (Women), SVIMS University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India.


Introduction: The change in arterial blood pressure and heart rate is one of the generally known physiological changes in aging of man. The present study was intended to evaluate BP and HR changes with age.
Aim The objective of the study is to know the prevalence of orthostatic hypotension in healthy geriatric subjects.
Materials and Methods: The subjects selected are 120 in number with age group 35 to >65 years of both sex and they are categorized into 4 groups based on their age. Group- I: The age of 35-45 years; Group-II:  The age of 45-55 years; Group-III: The age of 55-65 Years; Group-IV: The age of >65 years. Blood Pressure is recorded by using manual sphygmomanometer and orthostatic test was conducted in all the subjects. Heart Rate was calculated by using R-R interval by ECG machine.
Results: The examination of parameters, body mass index, Heart Rate, systolic and diastolic Blood Pressure during resting, immediate standing, after three minutes of standing i.e., postural variations were estimated for all subjects. The data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics.
Discussion: The findings suggested that the mean SBP and DBP are higher in Group IV compared to Group I which is statistically highly significant. After immediate standing in all the subjects the SBP is decreased and DBP is increased and this variation is variable in different groups. The Heart Rate in all four Groups increases. And this variation is also variable in different groups.
Conclusion: This study concluded that BP increases with increase in age due to stiffening of Blood vessels but the postural decrease in SBP in standing from lying down posture was more in elderly. Orthostatic Hypotension was found in only one elderly. So Orthostatic Hypotension was less prevalent in healthy elderly.
KEYWORDS: Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Body mass index, Orthostatic Hypotension.


  1. ElissaWilker, Murray A. Mittleman, Augusto A. Litonjua, Audrey Poon, Andrea Baccarelli, Helen Suh, Robert O, Wright, David Sparrow, PantelVokonas, and Joel Schwartz. Postural Changes in Blood Pressure Associated with Interactions between Candidate Genes for Chronic Respiratory Diseases and Exposure to Particulate Matter. EnvirHealtPersp. 2009; 117: 935-940.
  2. Gupta V, Lipsitz LA. Orthostatic hypotension in the elderly: diagnosis and treatment. Am J Med 2007 Oct; 120 (10):841-847.
  3. Low PA. Prevalence of orthostatic hypotension. ClinAuton Res 2008;18 Suppl 1:8-13.
  4. DV Muralidhara, M Ramesh Bhat, MH Naveed Ahmed;Body Composition in Subjects of Different Age and BodyMass Index; 2009 JPBS.
  5. Iain A d O'Brien, Paul O'hare, Roger J M Corrall; Heart rate variability in healthy subjects: effect of age and the derivation of normal ranges for tests ofautonomic function: Br Heart J 1986;55:348-54.
  6. Rowe JW, Troen BR. Sympathetic nervous system and aging in man. Endocr Rev 1980; 1: 167-79.
  7. Baliga R, Prabhu GP. Orthostatic hypotension in healthy elderly: Is it a myth? North Am J Med Sci2010;2:416-418.  ISSN: 1947 – 2714.
  8. Lipsitz LA. Orthostatic hypotension in the elderly. N Engl J Med 1989; 321:952-957.
  9. Margaret Brennan, Eoin O'Brien and Kevin O'Malley; The Effect of Age on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability in Hypertension; Journal of Hypertension 1986; 4 (suppl6):S269-S272.
  10. Oida, E., Kannagi, T., Moritani, T. and Yamori, Y. Physiological significance of absolute heart rate variability in postural change.Acta. Physiol. Scan.1999; 165: 421-422.
  11. Hollander, A.P. and Bouman, L.N. Cardiac acceleration in man elicited by a muscle-heart reflex. J. Appl. Physiol. 1975;38:272-2785.
  12. Iellamo, F., Legramant, J.M., Massaro, M., Galante, A., Pigozzi, F.,Nardozi, C. and Sangilli, V. Spontaneous baroreflex modulation of heart rate and heart rate variability during orthostatic stress in tetraplegics and healthy subjects. J. Hypertens. 2001;19: 2231-2240.
  13. Borst C, Wieling W, Van Bridarode JFM, Hond A, de Rijk LG, Dunning AJ. Mechanisms of initial heart rate response to postural change. AM J Physiol 1982; 243: H676-H681.
  14. Mohrman, D.E. and Heller, L.J. Cardiovascular Physiology 4th Edition. McGraw-Hill Health Professions Division, 1997: pp 179-183.
  15. A.Y.M. Jones, C. Kam, K.W. Lai, H.Y. Lee, H.T. Chow, S.F. Lau, L.M. Wong, and J. He; Changes in Heart Rate and R-Wave Amplitude with Posture; Chinese Journal of Physiology 2003;46(2):63-69.
  16. D. J. Ewing, I. W. Campbell, A. Murray, J. M. M. Neilson and B. F. Clarke Immediate heart­ rate response to standing: simple test for autonomic neuropathy in diabetes, BMJ, 1978;1:145­157. 
  17. Shamsuzza man, A.S.M., Sugiyama, Y., Kamiya, A., FU, Q. and Mano, T. Head-up suspension in humans: effects on sympathetic vasomotor activity and cardiovascular responses. J. Appl. Physiol.84: 1513-1519, 1998.
  18. ArturFedorowski, Lars Stavenow, Bo Hedblad et al Orthostatic hypotension predicts all- cause mortality and coronary events in middle aged individuals (The Malmo Preventive Project). Euro Heart J 2010; 31: 85-91.
  19. Caird FI, Andrews GR, Kennedy RD. Effect of posture on Blood pressure in the elderly. Br Heart J 1973; 35: 527-530.
  20. Chumlea WC et al. Body composition estimates from NHANES II bioelectrical impedance data. Int J Obes Related Metabol Dis. 2002; 26: 1596-1609.
  21. David Robertson, ItaloBiaggioni, Geoffrey  Burnstock, Phillip A. Low, Julian F.R. Paton ;Aging and the Autonomic Nervous system. In;Primer on  the Autonomic Nervous System: p 272.
  22. Hofsten A, Elmfeldt D, Svardsudd K, Age related differences in blood pressure and heart rate responses to changes in body position: results from a study with serial measurements in supine and standing positions in 30, 50, 60 year old men. Blood press 1999;8:220-226.
  23. Jacob, G., Ertl, A.C., Shannon, J.R., Furlan, R., Robertson, R.M.and Robertson, D. Effect of standing on neurohumoral responses and plasma volume in healthy subjects. J. Appl. Physiol. 84: 914-21;1998.
  24. John G. Bradley MD, Kahy A. Davis RN, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Decatur, Illinois. Orthostatic Hypotension Am Fam Physician 2003 Dec 15; 68(12):2393-2399.
  25. Kaijser L, Sachs C Autonomic cardiovascular responses in old age. Clin. Physiol. 1985,Aug; 5(4):34757.

K.Pujitha, G.Parvathi, K. Muni Sekhar. POSTURAL CHANGES IN HEART RATE AND BLOOD PRESSURE WITH AGEING. Int J Physiother Res 2014;2(6):751-756. DOI: 10.16965/ijpr.2014.678




Volume 1 (2013)

Volume 2 (2014)

Submit Manuscript