Quick Links
How   to   cite   this   Article:    Shekhar   Kumar   Yadav,   Ratindra      Nath      Shrestha,   Arun   Dhakal,   Gulam   Anwer   Khan.    PLACENTAL   CO-EFFICIENT   IN NEPALESE POPULATION  AND IT’S CLINICAL RELEVANCE.  Int J Anatomy Res 2016;4(4):3058-3062. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2016.401.
Type of Article: Original Research DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2016.401 Page No.:  3058-3062
PLACENTAL CO-EFFICIENT IN NEPALESE POPULATION  AND IT’S CLINICAL RELEVANCE Shekhar Kumar Yadav * 1 , Ratindra  Nath  Shrestha 2 , Arun Dhakal 3 , Gulam Anwer Khan 4 . *1 Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Chitwan Medical College, Bharatpur, Nepal. 2  Professor and HOD, KIST Medical College, Kathmandu, Nepal. 3 Assistant Professor, Chitwan Medical College, Bharatpur, Nepal. 4  Assistant   Professor, Department of Anatomy, Chitwan   Medical College, Bharatpur, Nepal. Address   for   the   Correspondence:    Dr.   Shekhar   Kumar   Yadav,   Assistant   Professor,   Department   of   Anatomy,   Chitwan   Medical   College,   Bharatpur,   Nepal.   E- Mail:   shekhar_np1@hotmail.com ABSTRACT Background:   The   placenta   is   a   functional   unit   between   the   mother   and   the   fetus.   Placental   coefficient   is   a   method   to   correlate   the   weight   of   a   baby   and   the placenta.   Any   pathological   events         that   concern   the   mother   and   the   fetus   tend   to   influence   the   normal   function   of   the   placenta   as   revealed   in   different studies by many authors. Aim :The   aim   of   the   study   was   to   examine   and   assess   placental   coefficient   of   the   normal   placenta   and   also      in   pathological   conditions   which   included diabetes mellitus, anaemia and hypertension. Materials   and   Methods:    The   freshly   delivered   placentas   for   this   study   were   obtained   from   department   of         Gynaecology      and      Obstetrics,   Tribhuvan Hospital      Teaching      Hospital.   The   study   was   conducted   on   a   total   of   100   freshly   obtained   placenta,   out   of   them,   15   were   from   diabetic   mothers,   15   from anaemic   mothers   and   15   from   hypertensive   mothers.   The   placental   co-efficient   was   obtained   by   dividing   placental   weight   in   grams   by   birth   weight   in grams. Results:      The   mean   weight   of   placenta   was   546.9   ±   of   81.38   gm.   The   mean   neonatal   weight   was   3.00±0.4kg.      The   result   shows   statistically   significant difference   between   weight   of   placenta   (p=0.001)   and   placental   coefficient   (p=0.001)   of   anemic   and   non-anemic   mothers.   Similarly   statistically   significant difference    was    obtained    between    weight    of    placenta    (P=0.003)    and    neonatal    weight    in    diabetic    (P=0.016)    and    non    diabetic.    Statistically    significant difference was not observed in hypertensive and normotensive  placenta. Conclusion:    Findings   of   the   study   shows   the   assessment         of   placenta   very   much   essential   as   normal   pregnancies   can   also   show   significant   placental changes.   Systemic   illness   alters   the   placental   morphology   and   adequate   treatment   of   systemic   illness   may   therefore   be   necessary         to         normal   placental function. KEY WORDS: Placenta, Parameters, Diabetes mellitus, Anaemia, Hypertension. References 1 . Kouvalainen K, Pynnonen Al, Makarainen M,Peltonen T.Weights of placental membranes and umbilical cord.Duodecim.1971;87:1210-1214. 2 . Raghunath   G,   Vijayalaxmi,   Shenoy   V.   A   study   on   the   Morphology   and   the   Morphometry   of   the   Human   Placenta   and   its   Clinical   Relevance   in   a population in Tamilnadu. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2011 Apr;5(2):282-286. 3 . Clavero JA, Botella Llusia J. Measurement of the villus surface in normal and pathologic placentas. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1963; 86: 234-240. 4 . Dadhich   A   ,Kataria   S,   Kushal   R.      Potaliya   P.Study   of   effect   of   eclampsia   and   chronic   hypertension   on   gross   morphology   of   placenta.   Int   J   Biol   Med   Res. 2012; 3(2): 1771-1773 5 . Majumdar   S,   Dasgupta   H,   Bhattacharya   K,   Bhattacharya   A.   A   Study   of   Placenta   in   Normal   and   Hypertensive   Pregnancies.   J.Anat.Soc.   India   2005;54 (2):34-8. 6 . Chowdhury   A,   Shamim   K,   Ferdousi   R,   Begum   J,      Banu   L.   A   Comparative   Study   of   Effects   of   Different   Grades   of   Maternal   Established   Diabetes   Mellitus on Placental and Neonatal Weight. Bangladesh J. Anat. 2011; 9(1) : 53-58. 7 . Teasdale F. Histomorphometry of the human placenta in class B diabetes mellitus. Placenta 1983; 4: 1-12. 8 . Akhter   F,      Banu   L,      Ferdausi   R.   Effect   of   Gestational   Diabetes   Mellitus   on   Gross   Morphological   Structure   of   Preterm   Placenta.   Bangladesh   J.   Anat.   2010;                             8(1) : 34-38. 9 . Begum M, Nurunnabi A, Begum S, Effect of Antenatal Anaemia of the Mother on the Volume of the Placenta. AKMMC J 2011; 2(1): 22-25. 1 0 . Habib   F.Prediction   of      Low   Birth   Weight   Infants   from   Ultrasound   measurement      of   Placental   diameter   and      Placental   thickness   .Ann   Saudi   Med   2002; (5-6):312-314. 1 1 . Kishwara   S,      Nurunnabi   S,      Pal   D,      Ara   S.   Study   on   the   Histological   Changes   in   the   Parenchymaof   the   Placentae   of   Preeclamptic   Women   Bangladesh   J Obstet Gynaecol, 2009; Vol. 24(2) : 63-66. 1 2 . Chakraborty S et al . Impacts of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus on   the Mother and the Neonate. Bangladesh J. Anat. 2010; 8(2) : 64-68 1 3 . Makhseed MA, Ahmed MA, Musini VM.Impaired gestational glucose tolerance. Its effect on placental pathology. Saudi Med J 2004; 25: 1241 – 44. 1 4 . Sumeksri   P,   Wongyai   S,   Aimpun   P.   Prevalence   of   gestational   diabetes   mellitus   in   pregnant   women   aged   30   to   34   years   old   atphramongkutklao Hospital. J Med Assoc Thai 2005; 89: 94 – 99. 1 5 . Londhe P, Mane A. Morphometric  study  of  placenta  and  its correlation in Normal  and hypertensive  pregnancies.IJPBS 2011;2-4:429-437. 1 6 . Gediminas Meeejus Influence of placental size and gross abnormalities on intrauterine growth retardation in high-riskpregnancies 2005; 12: 14–19 1 7 . Baloch A,Memon S,Ansari A. Comparison of Placentae from Hypertension Associated Pregnancies and Normal Pregnancies.JLUMHS2012;11:3-6. 1 8 . Godfrey   KM,   Redman   CW,   Barker   DJ,   Osmond   C.   The   effect   of   maternal   anaemia   and   iron   deficiency   on   the   ratio   of   fetal   weight   to   placental   weight.   Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1991 Sep;98(9):886-891. 1 9 . Asgharnia   M,      Esmailpour   N,   Poorghorban   M   and   Atrkar-Roshan   Z.   Placental   weight      and   its   association   with   maternal   and   neo   natal   characteristics. Acta Medica Iranica 2008; 46(6) . 20. Little RE, Zadorozhnaja TD, Hulchiy OP, Mendel NA, Shkyryak-Nyzhnyk ZA, Chyslovska N, Gladen BC. Placental weight and its ratio to birthweight in aUkrainian city. Early Hum Dev. 2003 Apr;71(2):117-127.
Volume 4 |Issue 4.2 |  2016 Date of Publication:  30 November 2016