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How   to   cite   this   Article:    Bhavya   B.S,   Maheshwari   Myageri,   Smitha   M .   ACCESSORY   HEAD   OF   FLEXOR   DIGITORUM   PROFUNDUS:   A   CASE STUDY . Int J Anatomy Res 2016;4(4):2931-2935. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2016.376.
Type of Article: Case Study DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2016.376 Page No.:  2931-2935
ACCESSORY HEAD OF FLEXOR DIGITORUM PROFUNDUS: A CASE STUDY  Bhavya B.S *,   Maheshwari Myageri, Smitha M. Tutor, Department of Anatomy, Karnataka Institute Of Medical Sciences, Hubli, Karnataka, India. Correspondence   Address:    Dr.   Bhavya   B.S.,   Tutor,   Department   of   Anatomy,   Karnataka   Institute   of   Medical   Sciences,   Hubli   –   580021,   Karnataka,   India. Mobile: 09845197705  E-Mail : dr.bhavyabs1984@gmail.com ABSTRACT Background:    In   1813   Gantzer   described   2   accessory   muscles   in   the   human   forearm   which   bear   his   name,   accessory   head   of   flexor   digitorum   profundus   and accessory   head   of   flexor   pollicis   longus.   The   less   frequently   observed   was   accessory   head   of   flexor   digitorum   profundus   and   hence   this   study   was conducted. Materials   and   Methods:    25   formalin-fixed   cadavers   (50   upper   limbs)   were   dissected   as   per   the   standard   methods.   Detailed   study   of   origin,   insertion   of accessory heads of flexor digitorum profundus muscle and various other parameters were recorded. Results:    Two   out   of   fifty   upper   limbs   (4%)   were   observed   to   have   accessory   head   of   flexor   digitorum   profundus.   Origin   and   insertion   of   each   case   was different but all got its innervation through direct branch from Median nerve. Conclusion:    Accessory   heads   of   flexor   digitorum   profundus   may   cause   various   syndromes   and   its   knowledge   of   existence   is   important   for   surgeons operating in forearm. KEY WORDS: Accessory head of flexor digitorum profundus, pronator teres, coronoid process of ulna, median nerve, ulnar artery, carpal tunnel syndrome. References 1 . Standring S. Gray’s Anatomy - The anatomical basis of clinical practice. 40 th  ed. London: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2008:847-848. 2 . Hollinshead HW. Anatomy for surgeons. 2 nd  edition, vol 3. Philadelphia: Harper and Row; 1969:408-409. 3 . El   Domiaty   MA,   Zoair   MM,   Sheta   AA.   The   prevalence   of   accessory   heads   of   the   flexor   pollicis   longus   and   the   flexor   digitorum   profundus   muscles   in Egyptians and their relations to median and anterior interosseous nerves. Folia Morphol 2008;67(1):63-71. 4 . Jones   M,   Abrahams   PH,   Sanudo   JR,   Campillo   M.   Incidence   and   morphology   of   accessory   heads   of   flexor   pollicis   longus   and   flexor   digitorum   profundus                 ( Gantzer’s muscles). J Anat 1997;191:451-455. 5 . Nayak   SR   et.al.   Multiple   muscular   anomalies   of   upper   extremity:   a   cadaveric   study.   Romanian   Journal   of   Morphology   and   Embryology   2008;49(3):411- 415. 6 . Vollala et.al. Multiple accessory structures in the upper limb of a single cadaver. Singapore Med J 2008;49(9):e254-e258. 7 . Rodrigues V et.al. Abnormal muscle in the anterior compartment of the forearm: a case report. Cases journal 2009;2:9125. 8 . Kumar   S,   Verma   R,   Mehra   RD.   An   anomalous   origin   of   accessory   head   of   flexor   digitorum   profundus   in   forearm:   A   rare   variant.   Journal   of   anatomical society of india. 2016, DOI: 10.1016/j.jasi.2016.04.001. 9 . Bergman   RA,   Afifi   AK,   Miyauchi   R.   Illustrated   Encyclopedia   of   Human   Anatomic   Variation:   Opus   I:   Muscular   System:   Alphabetical   listing   of   muscles:   F [cited 2016 july 21]. Available from: http://www.anatomyatlases.org/AnatomicVariants/MuscularSystem/Text/F/16Flexor.shtml 1 0 . Kopuz C, Fidan B, Islam A. An unusually distal and complete additional flexor profundus muscle to the index finger. J Anat 1997;199:465-467. 1 1 . Narayana   K,   Narendiran   K,   Prakash   KS,   Prashanthi   N.   A   case   of   coexistence   of   three   anatomical   variations   in   the   forearm:   Ganzer’s   muscles,   Martin   Gruber anatomosis and nerve of Henle. Eur J Anat 2004;8(2):81-84. 1 2 . Nayak   SR,   Ramanathan   L,   Prabhu   LV,   Raju   S.   Additional   flexor   muscles   of   the   forearm:   case   report   and   clinical   significance.   Singapore   Med   J 2007;48(8):e231-e233. 1 3 . Rakesh GV et.al. Rare origin of two accessory bellies from the undersurface of flexor digitorum superficialis muscle. Eur J Gen Med 2009;6(1):57-59. 14. Jones M, Abrahams PH. Case report: accessory head of the deep forearm flexors. J Anat 1997;191:313-314.
Volume 4 |Issue 4.1 |  2016 Date of Publication:  31 October 2016