International Journal of Anatomy and Research

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Type of Article: Original Research

Year: 2016 | Volume 4 | Issue 3 | Page No. 2710-2716

Date of Publication: 31-08-2016



Deepshikha Kori * 1, Ganpat Prasad 2, Archana Rani 1, Rakesh Kumar Dewan 1, Ritu Singh 1, Pooja Singh 1.

*1 Department of Anatomy, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

2 Department of Anaesthesia, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Address: Dr. Deepshikha Kori, JR III, Department of Anatomy, KingGeorge’s Medical University, Lucknow- 226003 Uttar Pradesh, India. Mobile no.: +917839130258 E-mail:


Background: Calcaneum is the largest tarsal bone of foot. The superior surface of calcaneum bears 3 articular facets anterior, middle and posterior for the talus. There are considerable variations in number and arrangement of these facets. Many times because of constant stress or calcium deposit, a bony deformity appears on it called calcaneal spur. Present study was done to determine pattern of the talar facets of calcanei and their clinical implication in North Indian population and association with calcaneal spur.
Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India in 600 dry calcanei of unknown sex and age. The superior, posterior and inferior surface of each calcaneum was carefully examined for various type of articulating facets for talus and presence or absence of calcaneal spur.
Results: According to types of talar facets, we classified calcanei into 5 Types. Type I- Fusion of middle and anterior facets (73.9%). This group was further divided into Type Ia and Type Ib on the basis of constriction. Type II- The anterior and middle facets were separate (21.5%). This group was also divided into Type IIa, Type IIb and Type IIc on the basis of distance between anterior and middle facets. Type III- Absence of anterior facet (3.67%). Type IV- Fusion of all 3 facets i.e. anterior, middle and posterior (0.3%). Type V- Fusion of middle and posterior facets (0.6%). Type I was predominant followed by Type II. Total incidence of calcaneal spur was found to be 17.7% of which 35% were only dorsal spur, 60.4% only plantar spur while 4.7% bear both dorsal and plantar spurs. These spurs were found predominantly in Type I calcanei. Type III and IV didn’t exhibited dorsal or plantar spurs.
Conclusion: The superior articular surface of calcanei shows racial and individual difference. There is dominance of Type I calcanei which is associated with spurs in Indians as compared to Europeans who commonly present Type II. This fact necessitates the orthopaedic surgeons in India to modify the surgical technique when they perform calcaneal osteotomy.
KEY WORDS: Calcaneum, Variations, Dorsal Spur, Plantar Spur, Articular Facets.


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Deepshikha Kori, Ganpat Prasad, Archana Rani, Rakesh Kumar Dewan, Ritu Singh, Pooja Singh. STUDY OF VARIATIONS IN TALAR ARTICULAR FACETS OF HUMAN CALCANEI AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH CALCANEAL SPURS IN NORTH INDIAN POPULATION. Int J Anat Res 2016;4(3):2710-2716. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2016.313




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