International Journal of Anatomy and Research

Welcome to International Journal of Anatomy and Research




Type of Article: Original Research

Year: 2016 | Volume 4 | Issue 3 | Page No. 2552-2560

Date of Publication: 31-07-2016



Payal Arvind Kasat *1, Muthiyan GG 2, Pritha S. Bhuiyan 3.

*1 Speciality Medical Officer, Seth G. S. M. C. & K.E.M. Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

2Assistant Professor of Anatomy, B.Y.L.Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

3 Professor and Head, Department Of Anatomy, Seth G. S. M. C. & K.E.M. Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Address: Dr. Payal Arvind Kasat, Speciality Medical Officer, Seth G. S. M. C. & K.E.M. Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.


Background: The principal complication of surgery of the mental foramen region is paralysis of the mental nerve. Identification of mental foramen is thus important to dental surgeons in nerve blocks and in doing surgical procedures like apicocurettage of mandibular premolars, amalgam filling, periodontal surgery etc. so as to avoid injury to neurovascular bundle. Accessory mental foramina tend to exist in the apical area of the first molar and posterior or inferior area of the mental foramen. Verification of the existence of accessory mental foramina would prevent accessory nerve injury during periapical surgery. In root canal treatment, the possibility of accessory mental foramina–related nerve paraesthesia seems low unless the mental foramen is injured. These foramina have been found to vary in position in different ethnic groups. Therefore, knowledge of morphology of mental foramen will enable effective mental block anaesthesia.
Materials and Methods: Hundred dry adult human mandibles were examined for number, shape and position of mental foramen in relation to the roots of mandibular teeth.
Results: Mental foramen was present in all hundred observed mandibles and it was bilateral. 1.5% of the mandibles showed double mental foramen which was present in the right side. None of the mandibles presented with bilateral accessory mental foramen. Taking both sides into consideration, round shaped mental foramen were observed in 106 mandibles and oval shaped in 94 mandibles. The most common position was on the longitudinal axis of the second premolar.
Conclusions: The morphologic variations of mental foramen are clinically important for dental surgeons and anaesthetists.
Key words: Mental Foramen, Morphology, Mental Anesthesia, Apicocurettage of Mandibular Premolar, Position of Mental Foramen.


  1. Collins P. Infratemporal and Pterygopalatine Fossae and Temporomandibular Joint. Standring S, editor. Gray’s Anatomy: the Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice. 40th edition. New York: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2008: 527-560.
  2. Sankar DK, Bhanu SP, Susan PJ. Morphometrical and morphological study of mental foramen in dry dentulous mandibles of South Andhra population of India. Indian J Dent Res 2011;22:542-546.
  3. Riesenfeld A. Multiple infraorbital, ethmoidal, and mental foramina in the races of man. Am J Phys Anthrop. 1956;14:85-100.
  4. Sutton RN. The practical significance of mandibular accessory foramina. Aust Dent J. 1974;19:167-173.
  5. Gershenson A, Nathan H, Luchansky E. Mental Foramen and Mental Nerve: Changes with Age. Acta Anat (Basel). 1986;126(1):21-28.
  6. Sawyer DR, Kiely ML, Pyle MA. The Frequency of Accessory Mental Foramina in Four Ethnic Groups. Arch Oral Biol. 1998 May; 43(5):417-420.
  7. Agthong S, Huanmanop T, Chentanez V. Anatomical Variations of the Supraorbital, Infraorbital, and Mental Foramina Related to Gender and Side. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005 Jun;63(6):800-804.
  8. Toh H, Kodama J, Yanagisako M, Ohmori T. Anatomical Study of the Accessory Mental Foramen and the Distribution of its Nerves. Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn. 1992;69:85-87.
  9. Boronat López A, Peñarrocha Diago M. Failure of locoregional anesthesia in dental practice: review of the literature. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2006;11:E510-513.
  10. Tebo HG, Telford IR. An Analysis of the Variations in Position of the Mental Foramen. Anat Rec. 1950;107:61-66.
  11. Yesilyurt H, Iydinlioglu A, Kavakli A, Ekinci N, Eroglu C, Hacialiogullari M, Diyarbakirli S. Local Differences in the Position of the Mental Foramen. Folia Morphol. 2008;67(1):32-35.
  12. Wang TM, Shih C, Liu JC, Kuo KJ. A Clinical and Anatomical study of the Location of the Mental Foramen in Adult Chinese Mandibles. Acta Anat.1986;126:29-33.
  13. Jaffar AA, Al-Zubaidi AF, Al-Salihi AR. Anatomical Features of Clinical Significance in Dry Mandibles. Iraqi Dental Journal. 2002;29:990-118.
  14. Azaz B, Lustmann J. Anatomical Configurations in Dry Mandibles. Br. J .Oral Surg.  1973;2:1-9.
  15. Concepcion M, Rankow HJ. Accessory branch of the mental nerve. J Endod 2000;26: 619-620.
  16. Çag˘irankaya LB, Kansu H. An accessory mental foramen: a case report. J Contemp Dent Pract 2008;9:98-104.
  17. Rastogi R, Budhiraja V, Sathpathi DK, Singh S, Gour KK, Nair S. Morphology and morphometry of the mental foramen in dry adult human mandibles from central India and their clinical correlation. Eur J Anat. 2012;16(1):22-26.
  18. Singh R, Srivastav AK. Study of Position, Shape, Size and Incidence of Mental Foramen and Accessory Mental Foramen in Indian Adult Human Skulls. Int J Morphol. 2010;28(4): 1141-1146.
  19. Gupta S, Soni JS. Study of Anatomical Variations and Incidence of Mental Foramen and Accessory Mental Foramen in Dry Human Mandibles. Natl J Med Res. 2012;2(1):28-30.
  20. Al-Khateeb T, Al-Hadi Hamasha A, Ababneh KT. Position of the Mental Foramen in a Northern Regional Jordanian Population. Surg Radiol Anat Journal. 2007 Apr; 29(3):231- 237. Epub 2007 Mar 21.
  21. Mbajiorgu EF, Mawera G, Asala SA, Zivanovic S. Position of the Mental Foramen in Adult Black Zimbabwean Mandibles: a Clinical Anatomical Study. Cent Afr J Med. 1998 Feb; 44(2):24-30.
  22. Oliveira Junior EM, Arau´jo ALD, Da Silva CMF et al. Morphological and morphometric study of the mental foramen on the M-CP-18 Jiachenjiang point. Int J Morphol 2009; 27: 231-238.
  23. Phillips JL, Weller N, Klild JC. The Mental Foramen: Part I. Size, Orientation, and Positional Relationship to the Mandibular Second Premolar. J. of Endodontics. 1990; 16(5):221-223.
  24. Apinhasmit W, Chompoopong S, Methathrathip D, Sansuk R, Phetphunphiphat W. Supraorbital Notch/Foramen, Infraorbital Foramen and Mental Foramen in Thais: Anthropometric Measurements and Surgical Relevance. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006 May; 89(5):675-682.
  25. Mwaniki DL, Hassanali J. The Position of Mandibular and Mental Foramina in Kenyan African Mandibles. East Afr Med J.1992;69:210-213.
  26. Ari I, Kafa IM, Basar Z, Kurt MA. The Localization and Anthropometry of Mental Foramen on Late Byzantine Mandibles. Coll Antropol. 2005 Jun;29(1):233-236.
  27. Oguz O, Bozkir MG. Evaluation of Location of Mandibular and Mental Foramina in Dry, Young, Adult Human Male, Dentulous Mandibles. West Indian Med J. 2002;51:14-16.
  28. Cutright B, Quillopa N, Schubert W. An Anthropometric Analysis of the Key Foramina for Maxillofacial Surgery. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.2003;61:354-357.
  29. Green RM. The position of the mental foramen: a comparison between the Southern (Hong Kong) Chinese and other ethnic and racial groups. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1987;63:287-290.
  30. Agarwal DR, Gupta SB. Morphometric Analysis of Mental Foramen in Human Mandibles of South Gujarat. People’s J Sci Res. 2011;4:15-18.
  31. Loyal PK, Butt F, Ogeng’o JA. The Surgical Relevance of the Anatomic Position of the Extraosseous Mental Nerve in a Kenyan Population. Pan African Medical Journal. 2014;18:51.
  32. Olasoji HO, Tahir A, Ekanem AU, Abubakar AA. Radiographic and Anatomic Locations of Mental Foramen in Northern Nigerian Adults. Niger Postgrad. Med J. 2004 Sep; 11(3):230-233.
  33. Santini A, Land MA. A Comparison of the Position of the Mental Foramen in Chinese and British Mandibles. Acta Anat.1990;137:208-212.
  34. Kjaer I: Formation and Early Prenatal Location of the Human Mental Foramen. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research. 1989;97(1):1-7.
  35. DeFreitas V, Madeira MC, Toledo Filho JL, Chagas CF. Absence of the Mental Foramen in Dry human Mandibles. Acta Anat (Basel). 1979;104(3):353-355.
  36. Shankland WE 2nd. The Position of the Mental Foramen in Asian Indians. J Oral Implantol. 1994;20(2):118-123.
  37. Kokten G, Buyukanten M, Balcioglu HA. Foramen mentalenin cap ve lokalizasyonunun kuru kemik ve panoramik radyografilerde (Comparison of the Diameter and the Location of Mental Foramen in Dry Mandibles and Panoramic Radiographs). Istanbul Universitesi Dishekimligi Fakultesi Dergisi. 2004; 38(10):65-71.
  38. Katakami K, Mishima A, Shiozaki K, Shimoda S, Hamada Y, Kobayashi K. Characteristics of Accessory Mental Foramina Observed on Limited Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Images. J Endod. 2008 Dec; 34(12):1441–1445. Epub 2008 Oct 11.
  39. Naitoh M, Hiraiwa Y, Aimiya H, Gotoh K, Ariji E. Accessory Mental Foramen Assessment Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009 Feb;107(2):289-294. Epub 2008 Dec 13.
  40. Igbigbi PS, Lebona S. The Position and Dimensions of the Mental Foramen in Adult Malawian Mandibles. West Afr J Med. 2005 Jul-Sep; 24(3):184-189.
  41. Prabodra LBL, Nanayakkara BG. The Position, Dimension and Morphological Variations of Mental Foramen in Mandibles. Galle Med J. 2006 Sept;11:13-15.
  42. Fabian FM. Position, Shape and Direction of Opening of the Mental Foramen in Dry Mandibles of Tanzanian Adult Black Males. Ital J Anat Embryol. 2007 Jul-Sep;112(3):169-177.
  43. Pirov S, Pirov A. Variations of the Mandibular Canal, Mandibular and Mental Orifices. Scientific Annals of the State University of Medicine and Pharmacy Nicolae Testemiţanu. – Chisinau. 2012;1:84-89.
  44. Udhaya K, Saraladevi KV, Sridhar J. The Morphometric Analysis of the Mental Foramen in Adult Dry Human Mandibles: A Study on the South Indian Population. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2013 Aug;7(8):1547-1551.
  45. Amorim MM, Prado FB, Borini CB, Bittar TO, Volpato MC, Groppo FC, Caria PH. The Mental Foramen in Dentate and Edentulous Brazilian’s Mandible. Int J Morpho. 2008;26:981-987.


Payal Arvind Kasat, Muthiyan GG, Pritha S. Bhuiyan. A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF MENTAL FORAMEN OF THE DRY ADULT HUMAN MANDIBLES. Int J Anat Res 2016;4(3):2552-2560. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2016.271




Volume 1 (2013)

Volume 2 (2014)

Volume 3 (2015)

Volume 4 (2016)

Submit Manuscript