Type of Article: Original Research
Year: 2016 | Volume 4 | Issue 3 | Page No. 2513-2517
Date of Publication: 31-07-2016
PREVALENCE OF PALMARIS LONGUS AGENESIS IN A SEMI URBAN POPULATION: A STUDY IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL
Pabbati Raji Reddy.
Associate Professor, RVM Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center, Medak, Telagana, India.
Address: Dr. Pabbati Raji Reddy, Associate Professor, RVM Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center, Medak, Telagana, India.
Introduction: Palmaris longus is one of the very few muscles of the body which shows a wide variation in position, duplication, slips and can be found reverted. One of the most common variations of this muscle is its agenesis or absence.
Materials and Methods: 200 hundred patients out of which 100 were males and 100 were females, were included into the study. All the patients were examined for Palmaris longus by the clinical inspection of the volar aspect of the wrist by Schaeffer’s test. If the tendon was found to be absent, the confirmation was done by Mishra’s test I and II, Pushpakumar’s test and Thompson’s test.
Results: Palmaris longus muscle was absent in a total of 18.5% subjects. Out of them males were 10.5%and the females were 8%. 23.8% subjects out of the males had bilateral agenesis while unilateral agenesis was seen in 76.2% cases. Among the females, 43.75% had a bilateral agenesis and 56.25% had unilateral agenesis. Most of the agenesis was seen on the non dominant hand.
Conclusion: Palmaris longus agenesis was seen in 18.5% of the cases overall, concluding that it is very prevalent in our geographical region.
Keywords: Palmaris longus, agenesis, Incidence.
- Chaurasia BD, Human Anatomy, 1988;Vol 1, 3rd Ed:95.
- J. W. M. Kigera and S. Mukwaya, “Frequency of agenesis Palmaris longus through clinical examination—an East African study. PLoS ONE 2011;6(12). Article ID e28997.
- J. M. Cope, E. M. Looney, C. A. Craig, R. Gawron, R. Lampros, and R. Mahoney, “Median nerve compression and the reversed palmaris longus,” International Journal of Anatomical Variation 2009;2:102-104.
- A. B. M. Machado and L. J. A. Di Dio. Frequency of the musculus palmaris longus studied in vivo in some Amazon Indians. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 1967;27(1):11-20.
- M. A. Babinski, K. M. A. Valente, C. M. S. Savedra, C. H. F. Burity, and A. M. S. Sabrá, Variação anatômica do músculo palmar longo associado a ausência do arco palmar superficial e compressão do canal de Guyon. Acta Scienteae Medica 2008;2(2):54-58.
- V. S. Telles, B. A. L. Ernesto. Consideraciones anatómicas de los músculos inconstantes. MedUnab 1998;1(3):165-170.
- C. Fowlie, C. Fuller, and M. K. Pratten. Assessment of the presence/absence of the palmaris longus muscle in different sports, and elite and non-elite sport populations. Physiotherapy. 2012;98(2):138-142.
- Lippert, L. Cinesiologia Clínica para Fisioterapeutas, incluindo teste para auto-avaliação. 2 Ed: Rio de Janeiro, Ed. Revinter, 1996.
- Kurihara K, Kojima T, Muramo E, Frontalis suspension for blepharoptosis using Palmaris longus tendon. Ann Palst Surg 1984;13:274-278.
- Atiyeh BA, Hashim HA, Hamdan AM, Kayle DI, Musharafieh RS. Lower reconstruction and restoration of oral competence with dynamic Palmaris longus vascularised sling. Arch Otolarungol Head Necck Surg. 1998;124:1390-1392.
- Davidson BA., Lip augmentation using the Palmaris longus tendon. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1995;95:1108-1110.
- Naugle TC Jr, Faust DC. Autogeneous Palmaris longus tendon as frontalis suspension material for ptosos correction in children. Am J Opthalmol;199;127:488-489.
- Kleinert HE, Pulvertaft RG, Smith DJ. Flexor tendon grafting in the hand. In: Jupiter JB, editor. Flynn’s Hand Surgery. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. 1991:285.
- Zancolli EA, Cozzi EP. The retinaculum cutis of the hand. In: Zancolli EA, Cozzi EP (eds). Atlas of Surgical Anatomy of the Hand. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1992: 2.
- Valentine P. Extrinsic muscles of the hand and wrist: An Introduction. In: Tubiana R (ed). The Hand. Vol I. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1981:237.
- George R. Co-incidence of the palmaris longus and plantaris muscles. Anat Rec 1953; 116: 521-3.
- Vanderhooft E. The frequency and relationship between the palmaris longus and plantaris tendons. Am J Orthop 1996;25:38-41.
- Sebastin SJ, Lim AYT, Wong HB. Clinical Assessment of Absence of the Palmaris Longus and its Association With Other Anatomical Anomalies – A Chinese Population Study. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2006;35:249-5.
- Schaeffer JP. On the variations of the palmaris longus muscle. Anat Rec 1909;3:275-8.
- Thompson J. W, McBatts J, Danforth C. H. Hereditary and racial variations in the musculus palmaris longus. Am. J. Phys. 1921;4:205-20.
- Mishra, S. Alternative tests in demonstrating the presence of palmaris longus. Indian J. Plast. Surg. 2001;34:12.
- Pushpakumar SB, Hanson RP, Carroll S. The ‘two finger’ sign. Clinical examination of palmaris longus (PL) tendon. Br J Plast Surg 2004;57:184-5.
- Troha, F.; Baibak, G. J. & Kelleher, J. C. Frequency of the palmaris longus tendon in North American Caucasians.Ann. Plast. Surg. 1990;25:477-8.
- Thompson NW, Mockford BJ, Cran GW. Absence of the palmaris longus muscle: a population study The Ulster Medical Journal. 2001;70(1):22-24.
- Kapoor S. K, Tiwari A, Kumar A, Bhatia R, Tantuway V, Kapoor S. Clinical relevance of palmaris longus agenesis: Common anatomical aberration. Anat. Sci. Int. 2008;83:45-8.
- Reimann AF, Daseler EH, Anson BJ, Beaton LE. The Palmaris longus muscle and tendon. A study of 1600 extremeties. Anat, Rec., 1944;89:495-505.
- Mugalur A, Shahane SM, Samant A, Pathak AC, Patil A & Reddy R. Anatomic variation of palmaris longus and flexor digitorum superficialis of little finger in Indian population. SICOT J. 2015;1:5.
- Sharma DK, Shukla CK, Sharma V. Clinical assessment of absence of Palmaris longus and its association with gender, body sides, handedness and other neighbouring anomalies in a population in central India. J Anat Soc, India.2012;61(1):13-20.
Pabbati Raji Reddy. PREVALENCE OF PALMARIS LONGUS AGENESIS IN A SEMI URBAN POPULATION: A STUDY IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL. Int J Anat Res 2016;4(3):2531-2517. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2016.236