International Journal of Anatomy and Research

Welcome to International Journal of Anatomy and Research




Type of Article: Original Research

Year: 2016 | Volume 4 | Issue 2 | Page No. 2196-2199

Date of Publication: 30-04-2016



Najma Mobin.

Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, JSS Medical College, JSS University, Mysore, Karnataka, India.

Address: Dr. Najma Mobin, Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, JSS Medical College, JSS University, Mysore, Karnataka, India.


Background: The Plantaris muscle is a small vestigial muscle having a small muscle belly and a long tendon, it is sandwiched between the Soleus and Gastronecmeus muscles present in the calf. Plantaris muscle is an important structure anatomically, surgically and radiologically. It is being used in various reconstructive surgeries as an autograft and in valvular heart repair, it has more advantages over the synthetic grafts.The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of agenesis and to know the variations pertaining to its origin and insertion. 
Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Department of Anatomy, JSS Medical College, Mysore, Karnataka State, India. The Plantaris muscle was dissected in 30 adult embalmed cadavers (60 lower limbs), 10 females and 20 males, the average age of the cadavers was between 40-60 years. Variations pertaining to agenesis, aberrancy of its attachment in its origin and insertion, duplication and triplication, accessory slips were observed and noted.
Result: It was observed that in each specimen there were variations in the thickness and length of Plantaris muscle and tendon. Agenesis of Plantaris was observed bilaterally in a male cadaver, with the incidence of 3.33%.
Conclusion: The Plantaris muscle, which was once thought to be a vestigial and degenerating structure, can be of maximum use as a graft material in various plastic & reconstructive surgeries. After reviewing the literature it was noted that the Palmaris longus muscle has been well understood and discussed compared to the Plantaris muscle.
KEY WORDS: Agenesis, Autograft, Plantaris muscle.


  1. Vishram S. Anatomy of abdomen and lower limb. Reed Elsevier India Private Limited, New Delhi, India: Thomson press India Ltd., Faridabad, Haryana; 2011: 2nd edition, Vol: 2, pp 443-445.
  2. Daseler EH,Anson BJ.The Plantaris muscle:An Anatomical study of 750 specimens.Journal of Bone Joint Surg.Am.1943;25:822-827.
  3. Le Double AF.Traite des variations du systeme musculaire de l’homme et de leur signification au point vue de l’anthropologie zoologique.Tome II,Paris:Schleicher Freres;1897.
  4. Henle J,Handbuch der systematischen Anatomie des Menschen3 Abth.:Muskellehre.Braunschweig F,Vieweg U Sohn.1871.
  5. Rana KK,Das S,Verma R.Double plantaris muscle:A cadaveric study with clinical importance.Int J Morphology.2006;24:495-98.
  6. Aragao JA,Reis FP,Guerra DR,Cabral RH.The occurrence of the plantaris muscle and its muscle-tendon relationship in adult human cadavers.Int J Morphology.2010;28(1):255-258.
  7. Nayak SR,Krishnamurthy A,Ramanathan L,Ranade AV,Prabhu LV,Jiji PJ,Chettiar GK,Potu BK.Anatomy of plantaris muscle: Astudy in adult Indians.La clinica Terapeutica.2010;161(3):249-252.
  8. Nazeer A,Khwaja NS. Morphological variations and surgical importance of the plantaris muscle in Humans.Indian journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences.2013; 3(4):342-346.
  9. Glissan DJ.The use of the plantaris tendon in certain types of plastic surgery.Australian and New Zealand J Surg. 1932; 11:64.
  10. Jeffrey HS,Hans HS. Plantaris tendon graft for atrioventricular valve repair. Tex Heart Inst Journal.2003; 30:42-44.
  11.  Newell RLM. Leg In: Standring S, editor. Gray’s Anatomy.39th edition, UK. Elsevier Churchil Livingstone.2005; pp 1499.
  12. Soubhagya RN, Ashwin K, Latha VP, Sampath M. Additional tendinous origin and entrapment of the Plantaris muscle.Clinics (Sao Paulo).2009;64(1):67-68.
  13. Richard JH.Accessory plantaris muscle:Anatomy and Prevalence.HSS Journal.2011;7(1):52-56.


Najma Mobin. ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS OF PLANTARIS MUSCLE: A CADAVERIC STUDY. Int J Anat Res 2016;4(2):2196-2199. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2016.175




Volume 1 (2013)

Volume 2 (2014)

Volume 3 (2015)

Volume 4 (2016)

Submit Manuscript