International Journal of Anatomy and Research

Welcome to International Journal of Anatomy and Research




Type of Article: Original Research

Year: 2016 | Volume 4 | Issue 1 | Page No. 2134-2138

Date of Publication: 31-03-2016



Satish Kumar S *1, Suresh Kumar T 2.

*1 Assistant Professor of Anatomy, Government Thiruvannamalai Medical College,Thiruvannamalai, Tamil Nadu, India.
2 Assistant Professor of Anatomy, Government Vellore Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Address: Dr. S. Satish Kumar M.D., Assistant Professor of Anatomy, Government Thiruvannamalai Medical College, Thiruvannamalai, Tamil Nadu, India. Mobile No: +919677183832.


Background: Styloid process is a slender pointed piece of bone projecting downwards from the inferior surface of temporal bone and gives attachment to muscles and ligaments.An elongated styloid process can compress the vital vessels and nerves close to it. The aim of the present study was to study the morphometric data of various parameters of styloid process and clinical importance of elongated styloid process.
Materials and Methods: 73 dry skull bones with intact styloid process in the Govt Thiruvannamalai Medical college and Govt Mohan Kumaramangalam Medical college , Salem. Length more than 30mm was considered as an elongated styloid process. All measurements such as length of the  styloid process, interstyloid distance, thickness at base of styloid process, distance between styloid process and stylomastoid foramen were measured using digital vernier callipers in millimetres.
Results:  We found average length of styloid process was 18.2mm and 16.8 mm on the right side and left side respectively. Average distance between two styloid processes at base was 72.0 mm and at tip it was 64.4 mm. Average thickness at the base of styloid process on the right side 4.34 mm and on left side 4.47mm.The average distance between styloid process and the stylomastoid foramen was 3.74mm on right side and 3.43mm on left side.
Conclusion: Anatomical knowledge of the styloid process and elongated styloid process is clinically important because of its close proximity to important neurovascular structures.Our study enlightens the importance of styloid process in patients with symptoms of Eagle’s Syndrome. These findings may be useful for phycisians,surgeons, radiologists, otorhinolaryngologists ,dentists and for anatomists as an academic interest.
Key words: Styloid process,Eagle syndrome,Elongated styloid process,Temporal bone.


  1. Standring S. Gray’s Anatomy. 40th ed. Elsevier: Churchill Livingstone, Edinburg;2008. P. 599-617.
  2. McMinn. RH. Last’s Anatomy Regional and Applied. 9th ED. New York: Churchill Livingstone,Edinburg; 1994.
  3. Patil S, Ghosh S, Vasudeva N. Morphometric study of the styloid process of temporal bone. J Clin Diagn Res 2014; 8:AC04-6.
  4. Eagle WW. Elongated styloid process: report of two cases. Arch Otolaryngol. 1937;25:584-7.
  5. Moffat DA, Ramsden RT, Shaw HJ. The styloid process syndrome: etiological factors and surgical management.J Laryngo Otol. 1977;91:279-94.
  6. Kaufman SM, Elzay RP, Irish EF. Styloid process variation. Radiologic  and  clinical study. Arch Oto laryngol. 1970;91:460-3.
  7. Lindeman  P. The elongated styloid process as a cause of throat discomfort. Four case reports. J Laryngol  Otol. 1985;99:505-8.
  8. Worth HM. Styloid process. In: Worth HM,eds. Principles and  Practice of oral Radiologic interpretation. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers; 1963:27.
  9. Standaring  S.  Skull and  mandible.  In Gray’s Anatomy.  The Anatomical Basis  of  clinical Practice. 39th ed.  Edinburg; Elsevier;2005:470.
  10. Saheib HS, Shepur MP, Haseena S. Study of length of styloid process on South Indian adult dry skulls. J Pharm Sci Res 2011;3:1456-9.
  11. Dhanalakshmi V, Santhi B, Manoharan C, Ananthi KS, Kumar RS. Morphometric study of Temporal Styloid Process and Stylohyoid Ligament Calcification. Int J Sci Stud 2015;3(1):130-132.
  12. Eagle WW. Symptomatic elongated styloid process;  report of two cases of styloid process-carotid artery syndrome with operation.  Arch Otolaryngol. 1949;49:490-503.
  13. Aral IL, Karaca I, Gungar N. Eagle’s Syndrome masquerading as dental J. 1997;42(1):18-9.
  14. Okabe S, Morimoto Y, Ansai T, Yamada K, Tanaka T, Awano S,et al. Clinical significance and variations of the advanced calcified stylohyoid complex detected by panoramic radiographs among 80-years-old subjects. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2006;58:191-9.
  15. Murtagha  RD, Caraccioloa JT, Fernandeza G. CT  findings associated with Eagle syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2001;186:489-90.
  16. Aris AM, Elegbe EO,Krishna R. Difficult intubation stylohyoid ligament calcification. Singapore   Med J 1992;33:204-5.
  17. Kumar P, Rayamane AP, Subbaramaiah M. Sudden death due to Eagle syndrome: A case report. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2013;34:231-3.
  18. Patil S, Ghosh S, Vasudeva N. Morphometric study of the styloid process of temporal bone. J clin Diagn Ses. 2014  Sep;8(9):A C04-6.
  19. Margam SR, Jadhav SD. Morphometric study of styloid process of temporal bone in Indian adult dry skull. Int J Res Med Sci 2015;3:1348-52.
  20. Rajanigandha Vadgaonkar, B.V Murlimanju, Latha V Prabhu, Rajalakshmi Rai, Mangala M. Pai,  Mamatha Tonse, P. J. Jiji. Morphological study of styloid process of the temporal bone and its clinical implications. Anat Cell Biol. 2015 Sep;48(3):195-200.
  21. Chaurasia BD. Deep structures in the neck: styloid apparatus.In: Chaurasia BD, eds. Human Anatomy, Regional Anatomy And Applied Dissection and Clinical Head and Neck,Brain. 4th ed. New Delhi: Cbs Publisher;2004:200.
  22. Kar JB, Mishra N,Raut S, Singh AK.Facial pain due to elongated styloid process. Contemp Clin Dentist. 2013;4(2):248-50.


Satish Kumar S, Suresh Kumar T. MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF STYLOID PROCESS OF THE TEMPORAL BONE AND ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE. Int J Anat Res 2016;4(1):2134-2138. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2016.163




Volume 1 (2013)

Volume 2 (2014)

Volume 3 (2015)

Volume 4 (2016)

Submit Manuscript