International Journal of Anatomy and Research

Welcome to International Journal of Anatomy and Research




Type of Article: Original Research

Year: 2016 | Volume 4 | Issue 1 | Page No. 2102-2107

Date of Publication: 31-03-2016



Vikas Dhawan 1, Manju Bala *2, Shaveta Galhotra 3.

*1 Medical Officer, Ayurved Medical Officer , Department Of Ayurveda, Sriganganagar, Rajasthan, India.
2 Associate Professor, Department Of Anatomy, Medical College, MMIMSR, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India.
3 Lecturer, Department Of Biochemistry, Guru Nanak Dev Dental College And Research Institute, Sunam, Sangrrur, Punjab, India.

Address: Dr. Manju Bala, Associate Professor, Department Of Anatomy, Medical College, MMIMSR, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India.


Introduction: The human hand which is the most used and versatile part of the body is of great scientific importance. Studies have established racial identification, sexual dimorphism and height and age estimation from hand dimensions for forensic applications.
Materials and Methods: The present in study was conducted to observe the sex differences in hand dimensions among North Indian Haryanvi adolescent population. The study was carried out in the Department of Anatomy at MM Institute of Medical Science & Research, Mullana , Ambala (Haryana), India. Data for the study were obtained from 400 Haryanvi Adults (200 males and 200 females) aged between 21-25 years randomly selected from population of Haryana. Diseased and/or disabled hands were excluded from the study. Hand length, Hand breadth, Palm Length were measured using sliding vernier’s callipers, Hand index was calculated using formula following standard protocols. Statistical analysis of the obtained data was done in relation with gender and side. The dimensions of both hands showed significant relation with sexual dimorphism.
Results: Results of our study may be useful to identify sex in medico-legal investigations and to decide man - machine compatibility in designing hand tools.
Key words:  Sexual Dimorphism, Hand Length (HL), Hand Breadth (HB), Palm Length (PL), Hand Index (HI), Hand Dimensions, Anthropometry.


  1. Danborno B, Elukpo A. Sexual dimorphism in hand and foot length, indices, stature-ratio and relationship to height in Nigerians. Internet J Foren Sci 2008;3(1): DOI: 10.5580/379
  2. Agnihotri AK, Shukla S, Purwar B. Determination of sex from the foot measurements. The Internet J Forensic Sci 2007;2:1.
  3. El-Meligy MMS, Abdel-Hady RH, Abdel-Maaboud RM, Mohamed ZT. Estimation of human body built in Egyptians. Forensic Sci Int 2006;159:27-31.
  4. Ozaslan A, Iscan MY, Ozaslan I, Tugcu H, Koc S. Estimation of stature from body parts. Forensic Sci Int 2003;132:40-5.
  5. Ozden H, Balci Y, Demirustu C, Turgut A, Ertugrul M. Stature and sex estimate using foot and shoe dimensions. Forensic Sci Int 2005;147:181-4.
  6. Ozaslan A, Iscan MY, Ozaslan I, Tugcu H, Koc S. Estimation of stature from body parts. Forensic Sci Int 2003;132:40-5.
  7. Sanli SG, Kizilkanat ED, Boyan Ozsahin NE, M. Bozkir MG, Soames R, Erol H, and Oguz O. Stature Estimation Based on Hand Length and Foot Length. Clin Anat 2005;18:589-96.
  8. Case DT, and Ross AH. Sex Determination from Hand and Foot Bone Lengths. J Forensic Sci, 2007;52:264-70.
  9. Oommen A, Mainker A, Oommen T. A Study of the Correlation Between Hand Length And Foot Length In Humans. J Anat Soc. India 2005:54:1-9.
  10. Krishan K, Sharma A. Estimation of stature from dimensions of hands and feet in a North Indian population. J Forensic Legal Med 2007;14:327-32.
  11. Habib SRKamal NN. Stature estimation from hand and phalanges length of Egyptians. J Foren Leg Med 2010;17(3):156-60.
  12. Khaled EAH, Soheir AM, Maha AH, Eman AM. Determination of sex from hand dimensions and index/ring finger length ratio in Upper Egyptians. Egpt J Foren Sci 2011;1:80–6.
  13. Kanchan T, Kumar GP, Menezes RG. Index and ring finger ratio: A new sex determinant in the South-Indian population. Foren Sci Int 2008;181(1):53.e1–4.
  14. Kanchan T, Krishan K, Sharma A, Menezes R. A study of correlation of hand and foot dimensions for personal identification in mass disasters. Foren Sci Int 2010;199(1):112.e1–6.
  15. Ozaslan A, Karadayi B, Kolusayin MO, Kaya A, Afsin H. A Predictive role of hand and foot dimensions in stature estimation. Rom J Leg Med 2012;20(1):41-6.
  16. Jasuja OP, Singh G. Estimation of Stature from Hand and Phalange Length. JIAFM 2004;26(3):100-6.
  17. Ozaslan A, Karadayi B, Kolusayin MO, Kaya A. Stature estimation from bi-acromial and bi-iliocristal measurements. Rom J Leg Med 2011;19(3):171-6.
  18. Ilayperuma I, Nanayakkara G, Palahepitiya N. Prediction of personal stature based on the hand length. Galle Med J 2009;14(1):15-18.
  19. Devi KVS, Udhaya K, Prabaharan J, Shastri D. Sexual dimorphism in hand dimensions-An anthropometric study in South Indian adolescents. Nat J Basic Med Sci 2011;2(1):14-7.
  20. Sidhu LS, Singal P, Bhatnagar DP and Jain S: Sexual Dimorphism, physique and body composition of adult Bhotia-A high altitude population. IndianAnthropologist. 1985;15(2):115-26.
  21. Bhatnagar D P, Singal P, Kaur G and Khendelwal N. Age changes in growth and body composition of Rajput of Kulu valley. Ind.J.Sports Sc.P.Ed.1990;2 (1):56-61.
  22. Verma SS, Sharma YK and Anand S. A multivariate study of three body measurements of different states of India. Anthropol. Anz. 2005;63(2):199-204.
  23. Reddy PY and Rao AP. Growth pattern of Sugaliss- A tribal population of Andhra Pradesh, India. Ann.Hum.Biol. 2000;27(1):67-81.
  24. Stini WA.Nutritional stress and growth: Sex differences in adaptive response. Am.J. Phys.Anthropol. 1969;31(3):417-26.
  25. Tanner JM, Hiernaux J and Jarnan S. Growth and physic studies. In: Human biology-A guide to field methods. IBP Handbook No.9. J.S.Weiner and J.A.Lourie (Eds). Blackwell scientific publication. Oxford.1969;315-40.
  26. Khongsdier R and Mukherjee N. Growth and nutritional status of Khasi boys in North east India relatind to exogamous marriages and socioeconomic classes. Am.J.Phys. Anthropol. 2003;122:162-70.
  27. Stini WA.Adaptive strategies of Human populations under nutritional stress.In: Physiological and morphological adaption and evaluation.       Mouton Publishers 1979;387-403.
  28. Kanchan T, Kumar GP, Menezes RG, Rastogi P, Rao PP, Menon A, Shelty BS, Babu YP, Monteiro FN, Bhagavath P, Nayak VC. Sexual Dimorphism of the index to ring finger ratio in South Indian Adolescents. J Forensic Leg ed. 2010;17(5):243-6.
  29. Krishan K, Kanchan T, Sharma A. Multiplication factor versus regression analysis in stature estimation from hand and foot dimensions. J Foren Leg Med 2012;19:211-14.
  30. Amirsheybani HR, Crecelius GM, Timothy NH, Pfeiffer M, Saggers GC, Manders EK. The natural history of growth of hand. Part II: Hand length as a therapeutic guide in paediatric trauma patients. J. Trauma 2000;49(3):457-60.
  31. Sunil, Dikshit PC, Aggrawal A, Rani M. Estimation of stature from hand length. JIAFM 2005;27(4):219-21.
  32. Agnihotri A, Purwar B, Jeebun N, Agnihotri S. Determination of sex by hand dimensions. Internet J Forensic Sci 2006;1(2). ISSN: 1540-2622 DOI: 10.5580/1785.
  33. Ibeachu PC, Abu EC, Didia BC. Anthropometric Sexual Dimorphism of Hand Length, Breadth and Hand Indices of University of Port-Harcourt Students. As J Med Sci 2011;3(8):146-50.


Vikas Dhawan, Manju Bala, Shaveta Galhotra.SEXUAL DIMORPHISM IN HAND DIMENSIONS: AN ANTHROPOMETRIC STUDY IN NORTH INDIAN HARYANVI ADOLESCENTS. Int J Anat Res 2016;4(1):2102-2107. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2016.155




Volume 1 (2013)

Volume 2 (2014)

Volume 3 (2015)

Volume 4 (2016)

Submit Manuscript