International Journal of Anatomy and Research

Welcome to International Journal of Anatomy and Research




Type of Article: Original Research

Year: 2016 | Volume 4 | Issue 1 | Page No. 1967-1971

Date of Publication: 29-02-2016



Gopalakrishna. K *1, Deepalaxmi S 2, Somashekara S.C 3, Rathna B.S 4.

*1,2 Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Malabar Medical College and Research Centre, Modakkallur, Atholi, Kozhikode, Kerala, India.
3 Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Malabar Medical College and Research Centre, Modakkallur, Atholi, Kozhikode, Kerala, India.
4 Professor, Department of Anatomy, Malabar Medical College and Research Centre, Modakkallur, Atholi, Kozhikode, Kerala, India.

Address: Dr. Gopalakrishna. K, Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Malabar Medical College and Research Centre, Modakkallur, Atholi, Kozhikode - 673315, Kerala, India. Ph: 09747059273


Background: Mandibular foramen is leading to mandibular canal through which inferior alveolar nerve and vessels will transmit and supply the teeth of lower jaw.Inferior alveolar nerve block is common anesthetic procedure prior to dental surgeries on lower jaw. Failure in mandibular anesthesia or injury to neurovascular bundle may be resulted by inaccurate localization of mandibular foramen. Hence this study is aimed to locate the mandibular foramen and its distances from different bone landmarks on internal surface of ramus of dry mandible of South Indian origin.
Objective: Study to determine the precise position of mandibular foramen in 100 dry mandibles, which is essential for successful inferior alveolar nerve block prior to dental procedures.
Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was done on 100 dentulous South Indian origin adult dry human mandibles of unknown sex and age. Distance of mandibular foramen from the mandibular notch, anterior border of the ramus of mandible, posterior border of the ramus of the mandible(angle of mandible), posterior border of the 3rd molar socket and meeting point of base with posterior border of ramus were measured. Further observation regarding the presence of accessory mandibular foramen was done. The observations were tabulated and descriptive statistics was used analyze the data.
Result: In the present study, totally 100 mandibular foramina and 18 accessory foramina were observed in the 100 mandible. The mean distance of mandibular foramina to anterior border of ramus is 14.63±3.16 (R) mm and 15.31±3.11 mm(L), to posterior border is (R):12.34±3.10 mm and (L):13.51±3.92 mm, to mandibular notch is (R):21.23±4.56 mm and (L):21.16±3.12 mm, to angle of mandible (R):22.14±3.18 mm and (L):22.1±4.12 mm, to posterior border of 3rd molar socket is (R):14.37±3.16 mm and (L):19.26±2.57 mm.
Conclusion: The present study on the precise location of mandibular foramen and on the incidence of accessory mandibular foramen will help the dental surgeons for more successful anesthesia and to perform safer surgeries on the ramus of mandible.
Key words: Mandibular Foramen, Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block, Mandibular Notch.


  1. Standring S. From Gray’s Anatomy, The anatomical basis of clinical practice, 40th edition. Churchill livingstone, Elsevier. 2008. Chapter-31, Page 530-533, 595-614.
  2. Ennes JP, Medeiros RM. Localisation of the mandibular foramen and its clinical impactions. International journal of morphol2009; 27:1305-1311.
  3. Shenoy V, Vijayalakshmi S, Saraswathi P. Osteometric analysis of the mandibular foramen in dry human mandibles. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research2012; 6:557-560.
  4. Oguz O, Bzkir MG. Evaluation of the location of the mandibular and the mental foramina in dry,young,adult human male dentulous mandibles. West Indian medical journal2002; 51:14-16.
  5. Ennes JP, Medeisros RM. Localization of mandibular foramen and clinical implication. Int J Morphol 2009;4:1305–1311.
  6. Mbajiorgu EF. A study of the position of mandibular foramen in adult black Zimbabwean mandibles. Central Africa Journal of Medicine 2000;46(7):184-190.
  7. Hwang TJ, Hsu SC, Huang QF, Guo MK. Age changes in location of mandibular foramen. ZhonghuaYa Yi XheZaZhi1990;9(3):98-103.
  8. B.Burt Gerstman. Basic Biostatistics: Statistics for public health practice.Johnes and Bartlett publications,Inc.Sudbury, Massachusetts 2008. Page 63-84, 210-250.
  9. Prajna Paramita Samanta, Poonam Kharb. Morphometric analysis of mandibular foramen and incidence of accessory mandibular foramina in adult human mandibles of an Indian population. Rev Arg de AnatClin2013;5(2):60-66.
  10. Kanan Shah, Pratik Shah and Ajay Parmar. Study of the location of mandibular foramina in Indian dry mandibles. Global research analysis 2013;2(7):128-130.
  11. Lavanya Varma C, ImtiazulHaq, Rajeshwari T. Position of mandibular foramen In South Indian andibles. Anatomica Karnataka 2011;5(1):53-56.
  12. Padmavathi G, Suman Tiwari, Varalakshmi KL, Roopashree R. An anatomical study of mandibular and accessory mandibular foramen in dry 2014;13(4):83-88.
  13. AsmaSaher Ansari, Imtiaz Ahmed. Localization of the mandibular foramen on the panoramic radiographs 2015;27(3):576-579.
  14. Murphy TR, Grundy EM. The inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle at the mandibular foramen. Dent Pract1969;20:41-48.
  15. Haveman CW, Tebo HG. Posterior accessory foramina of the human mandible. J Prosthetic Dentistry 1976; 35: 462-468.
  16. Das S, Suri RK. An anatomico-radiological study of an accessory mandibular foramen on the medial mandibular surface. Folia Morphol 2004;63:511-513.
  17. Jeyaseelan N, Sharma JK. A morphological study of unnamed foramina in the North Indian human mandibles and their possible role in neurovascular transmission. Int J Oral Surg 1984;13:239-242.
  18. Slootwerg PJ, Muller H. Mandibular invasion by squamous cell carcinoma. J CraniomaxillarySurg 1989;17:69–74.
  19. Fanibunda K, Matthews JNS. Relationship between accessory foramina and tumor spread in the lateral mandibular surface. J Anat1999;195:185-190.


Gopalakrishna. K, Deepalaxmi S, Somashekara S.C, Rathna B.S. AN ANATOMICAL STUDY ON THE POSITION OF MANDIBULAR FORAMEN IN 100 DRY MANDIBLES. Int J Anat Res 2016;4(1):1967-1971. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2016.122




Volume 1 (2013)

Volume 2 (2014)

Volume 3 (2015)

Volume 4 (2016)

Submit Manuscript