Type of Article: Original Research
Year: 2016 | Volume 4 | Issue 1 | Page No. 1806-1809
Date of Publication: 31-01-2016
MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF UMBILICAL CORD AND ITS EMBRYOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE
Rohinidevi M *1, Jeyasingh T 2, Vimala V 3.
*1 Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Coimbatore Medical College, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Forensic Medicine, Coimbatore Medical College, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Coimbatore Medical College, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.
Address: Dr. Rohinidevi M, Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Coimbatore Medical College, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.
Background: Knowledge about the morphometric measurement of the umbilical cord is important for better perinatal outcome.
Materials and Methods: A total of 50 placentas with umbilical cord were collected from the Department of Obstretrics and Gynaecology in the Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai. The study was conducted in the Institute of Anatomy, Madurai Medical College, Madurai. The length of the cord, diameter of the cord, cord coiling, presence of knots, vascular pattern and its microscopic structure were studied.
Results: In the present study the total length of the umbilical cord from the fetal end to placental end were measured. The maximum length was 73.4cm and minimum length was 43.4cm. The maximum transverse diameter of the cord at fetal end was 1.4cm and minimum was 0.7cm. The maximum transverse diameter of the cord at placental end was 1.7cm and minimum was 1.2cm. The coiling of the cord was observed. Hypocoiling of the cord was seen in 70%, hypercoiling in 24% and straight in 6%. The coiling manner was also studied. Anticlockwise coiling was seen in 78%, clockwise coiling was seen in 16% and coiling was absent in 6%. In hypocoiling umbilical cord the maximum coiling index was 0.12 and minimum was 0.08. In hypercoiling umbilical cord the maximum coiling index was 0.18 and minimum was 0.14.The false knots were seen in 32%, absence of knots in 68% and true knots were not observed. Three vessel patterns were observed in all 50 umbilical cord specimens. The magistral type of vessel pattern was present in 62% and dispersal type was seen in 38%. Microscopic structure of cord at the fetal end and placental end were coincides with the standard textbook description.
Conclusion: Knowledge about the variation in the morphometric measurements of umbilical cord is important for sonologists, obstetricians and pediatricians for preventing the intrauterine death and various abnormalities.
KEYWORDS: Umbilical cord, Coiling of the cord, Length of the cord, Vascular pattern.
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Rohinidevi M, Jeyasingh T, Vimala V. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF UMBILICAL CORD AND ITS EMBRYOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE. Int J Anat Res 2016;4(1):1806-1809. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2015.339