Type of Article: Original Research
Year: 2016 | Volume 4 | Issue 1 | Page No. 1802-1805
Date of Publication: 31-01-2016
MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF THE OCCIPITAL CONDYLE AND ITS SURGICAL IMPORTANCE
Archana K. Tale *1, Pratima R. Kulkarni 2, Sanobar Ismtulla Shaikh 3, Santosh S. Fupare 4.
*1 Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, SVNGMC Yavatmal, India.
2 Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy, GMC Dhule, India.
3 Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy, SVNGMC Yavatmal, India.
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, SGSMC & KEMH Mumbai, India.
Address: Dr. Archana K. Tale, Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, SVNGMC Yavatmal, India.
Objective: The transcondylar approach is being increasingly used to access lesions ventral to the spinal canal at the level of the foramen magnum can be reached using a ventral or a dorsal approach. Understanding the anatomy of the occipital condyles is important for this approach.The present work is aimed to study occipital condyles morphometrically and its importance in transcondylar approach.
Materials and methods: The study was performed on 200 occipital condyles of 100 adult human dry skulls of unknown age and sex. The measurements like length, width, height, and the anterior and posterior intercondylar distances were measured.
Results: The length, width and height of the occipital condyle were found to be 21.83, 1=1.07 and 8.25 mm on the right and 22.19, 11.42 and 8.19 mm on the left respectively. The anterior and posterior intercondylar distances were 21.28 and 40.61 mm respectively.
Conclusion: The above said parameters of the occipital condyles and its variations should be taken into consideration during posterior and lateral approaches to the craniovertebral junction by neurosurgeons and orthopaedicians.
KEY WORDS: Occipital condyle, foramen magnum, Surgical Anatomy.
- Susan Standring. Gray’s Anatomy, 40th Edition. Anatomical basis of clinical practice, Churchill Livingstone, London. 2008;40:415.
- Wen TH, Rhoton AL jr., Katsuta, et al. Microsurgical anatomy of the transcondylar, supracondylar and paracondylar extention of the far- lateral approach. J Neurosurg 1997;87:555-585.
- Al-Mefty O, Borba LA, Aoki N, Angtuaco E and Pait TG: The transcondylar approach to extradural non-neoplastic lesions of the craniovertebral junction. J Neurosurg 1996;84: 1-6.
- Salas E, Sekhar CN, Ziyal I, Caputy AJ and Wright DC: Variations of the extreme lateral craniocervical approach: Anatomical study and clinical analysis of 69 patients. J Neurosurg (spine 2)1999;90:206-209.
- Heros RC: Lateral suboccipital approach for vertebral and vertebrobasilar artery lesions. J Neurosurg 1986;64:559-562.
- George B, De-Matons C and Cophignon J: Lateral approach to the anterior portion of the foramen magnum. Neurol 1988;29:484-490.
- Bertalanffy H and Seeger W. The dorsolateral, suboccipital, transcondylar approach to the lower clivus and anterior portion of the craniocervical junction. Neurosurg 1991;29: 815-821.
- Tedeschi H and Rhoton ALJR. Lateral approaches to the petroclival region. Surg Neurol 1994;41:180-216.
- S. Kavitha, Shanta Chandrasekaran, A. Anand, K.C. Shanthi Morphometric study of occipital condyles in adult human skulls, IJCRR, July 2013;5(15):31-34.
- Divya Mahajan, Gaurav Agnihotri, Abha Sheth, Rahat Brar. An anatomical perspective of human occipital condyles and foramen magnum with neurosurgical correlates. Int J Experimental & Clinical Anatomy. Sep, 2011;6(7):29-33.
- Bozbuga M, Ozturk A, Bayraktar B, Ari Z, Sahinoglu K, Polat G, et al. Surgical anatomy and morphometric analysis of the occipital condyles and foramen magnum. Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn 1999;75:329-334.
- Avic E, Dagtekin A, Ozturk A.H, Kara.E, Ozturk NC, Uluc K et.al. Anatomical variations of the foramen magnum, occipital condyle and jugular tubercle. Turk Neurosurg 2011; 21(2):181-190.
- S Naderi, E Korman, G Citak, M Guvencer, C Arman, M S et al. Morphometric analysis of human occipital condyle. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2005;107:191-199.
- Anil Kumar and Mahindra Nagar. Human Adult Occipital Condyles: A Morphometric Analysis. RRJMHS, 2014;3(4);112-116.
- Dowd GC, Zeiller S and Awasthi D. Far-lateral transcondylar approach: Dimensional anatomy. Neurosurg 1991;45:95-99.
Archana K. Tale, Pratima R. Kulkarni, Sanobar Ismtulla Shaikh, Santosh S. Fupare. MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF THE OCCIPITAL CONDYLE AND ITS SURGICAL IMPORTANCE. Int J Anat Res 2016;4(1):1802-1805. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2015.338