International Journal of Anatomy and Research

Welcome to International Journal of Anatomy and Research




Type of Article: Original Research

Year: 2016 | Volume 4 | Issue 1 | Page No. 1772-1776

Date of Publication: 31-01-2016



Mahesh Vemavarapu 1, Jyothinath Kothapalli *2, Vijayendranath Kulkarni 3.

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Shadan institute of Medical sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
*2 Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, MNR Medical College & Hospital, Sangareddy, Medak, Telangana, India.
3 Professor, Department of Anatomy, Khaja bandanawaz institute of Medical Sciences, Gulbarga, Karnataka, India.

Address: Mr. Jyothinath Kothapalli, Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, MNR Medical College& Hospital, Fasalwadi, Sangareddy, Telangana, India. Phone: +91 9440551092


Background: The collo-diaphyseal angle (CDA) of femora appeared between the axis of neck and long axis of the femur having a great importance in complete understanding of the mechanics of the hip joint and serves as a basis for the treatment of pathological conditions of the hip and femur.
Materials and Methods: For the present study the collo-diaphyseal angle was measured in 152 normal south Indian femora, out of which 83 are random unknown sex femora, 42 are known males and 27 are known females. 
Results: In this series, recorded minimum angle is 111.00   and the recorded maximum angle is 146.00 and the average being 128.090 in random femora. In the present series 42 known normal male femora are measured in which the lowest angle is 115.00 and the highest angle is 141.00, the average being 128.040. Among 27 known normal female femora the minimum angle recorded is 112.00 and maximum angle recorded is 139.0, the average being 127.200.
Conclusion: The above findings revealed that the neck shaft angle of femur is greater in males than in females.
KEY WORDS: Collo-diaphyseal angle (CAD), Martin’s dioptrograph, Femur.


  1. Williams Perter L. Warwick Roger. Dyson Mary Bannister Lawrence H. Gray’s Anatomy. Churchill Livingstone London. Editor J. 40th e 1989;434.
  2. Carmie, R, Maureen S, Assumpció M. Development of femur-implication for ages and sex determinations, Bellaterra, Spain. Unitat Anthropologia Biologia. 2008;81-93.
  3. Humphry G. The angle of the neck with the shaft of the femur at different periods of life and under different circumstances. Journal of Anatomy and Physiology. 1889;23:273-82.
  4. Faulkner KG, Cummings S, Black D, Palermo L, Gluer C, Genant HK. Simple measurement of femoral geometry predicts hip fracture: the study of osteoporotic features. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 1993;8:1211-1217.
  5. Saikia KC, Bhuyan SK, Rongphar R. Anthropometric study of the hip joint in Northeastern region population with computed tomography scan. Indian J Orthop 2008;42:260-6.
  6. Kate B.R. The angle of femoral neck in Indians. Eastern anthropologist, vol.XX, No. 154-160.
  7. S. P. Tuck, D. J. Rawlings, A. C. Scane, I. Pande, G. D. Summers, A. D.Woolf, R.M. Francis. Femoral Neck Shaft Angle in Men with Fragility Fractures. SAGE Hindawi Access to Research Journal of Osteoporosis. 2011; Article ID 903726, 7 pages
  8. Parsons P.G. Characteristics of English thigh bone, J. of anatomy and physiology 1914;238-267.
  9. Falts W.J.L. The prenatal development of human femur. American Journal of anatomy 1954;94:1-44.
  10. Sitarama rao. Collodiaphyseal angle of femur in south indians. J.anatomical society of india, 1957;abstract 6:54.
  11. Mortin R 1958, leherbuch der anthropologic stuffgart gustav fischer. Verlag. 12th edition
  12. Kate B.R. The cyelonese femur and its comparision with indian and other asian femur. J. of anatomical society of india 1976;25(3):124-127.
  13. Srimathi T, Muthukumar T, Anandarani V.S, Umapathy Sembian, Rameshkumar Subramanian.   Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2012 April;6(2):155-158.
  14. A.I. Udoaka and C.E. Agi. A Study of the Collo-Diaphyseal Angle in an Adult Population in Southern Nigeria. Afr J Med Phy, Biomed Eng & Sc, 2010;2:67-70.
  15. Otsianyi, WK., Naipanoi, AP. and Koech, A., The femoral collo-diaphyseal angle amongst selected Kenyan ethnic groups  J. Morphol. Sci., 2011;28(2)129-131.
  16. Baharuddin m. Y, kadir m. R. A, zulkifly a. H, saat, a, aziz, a. A. & lee m. M. Morphology study of the proximal femur in malay population. Int. J. Morphol. 2011;29(4):1321-1325.


Mahesh Vemavarapu, Jyothinath Kothapalli, Vijayendranath Kulkarni. ESTIMATION OF COLLO-DIAPHYSEAL ANGLE OF FEMUR BY MARTINíS DIOPTROGRAPH: A COMPARATIVE STUDY. Int J Anat Res 2016;4(1):1772-1776. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2015.333




Volume 1 (2013)

Volume 2 (2014)

Volume 3 (2015)

Volume 4 (2016)

Submit Manuscript