International Journal of Anatomy and Research

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Type of Article: Original Research

Year: 2015 | Volume 3 | Issue 4 | Page No. 1689-1696

Date of Publication: 31-12-2015



Sujatha. M * 1, V. Subhadra Devi 2, C. S. S. Raju 3, B. Yugandhar 4, Nagaraju 5.

*1 Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Anatomy, S.V.Medical College, Tirupati, Andrha Pradesh, India.
2 Professor & Head, Department of Anatomy, SVIMS - Sri Padmavathi Medical College for women, Tirupati, Andrha Pradesh, India.
3 Consultant Cardiologist, Sri Bollineni Super Speciality Hospital, Nellore, Andrha Pradesh, India.
4 Consultant Cardiologist in Sri Venkata Sai Hrudayalaya, Tirupati Andrha Pradesh, India.
5 Consultant Cardiologist in DBR&SK Hospital, Tirupati, Andrha Pradesh, India.

Address: Mrs. Sujatha Manupati, Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Anatomy, Sri Venkateswara Medical College, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. India. Mobile No; +919246943011


Introduction: The segment of epicardial coronary artery that traverses intramurally through  the myocardium and bridged by  a bunch of cardiac muscle fibers is called tunneled artery or intramural artery. The band of cardiac muscle fibers passing over the tunneled artery segment is named as myocardial bridge.  During angiography milking effect is observed during systole due to the external pressure of muscle fibers on the tunneled artery that leads to narrowing of vessel lumen and further ischemia.
Materials & Methods: It is a prospective study performed from 2012- 2015 in cardiac centers available around Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, South India. A total number of 2015 adult patients who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography were evaluated to detect myocardial bridges. With the informed consent the relevant data was collected from the patients and analyzed.
Results: The prevalence of myocardial bridges was 3.17%. Among the 2015 patients 70.7% are males and 29.2% are females.  Among 64 myocardial bridge positive cases 62.5% were male and 37.5% were female patients. Regarding coronary dominance 84% were right dominant and 14.4% were left dominant and 1.6% are balanced. The percentage incidence of myocardial bridging according to dominance was 3.01% for right dominant patients, 4.12% for left dominant patients and 3.1%  for balanced dominant patients. In all the myocardial bridge positive cases they were located on the left anterior descending artery (LAD). According to diagnosis the patients with normal coronaries were 22.6%, patients with MILD CAD were 17.9%, patients with single vessel disease were 23.4%, patients with two vessel disease were 14.7% and the patients with triple vessel disease were 21.3%. The 64 myocardial bridging cases were grouped in to three groups according to their age. Incidence of double bridges was observed in 3 cases of which 66.7% males & 33.3% in females.
Conclusion: These results show that Andhra Pradesh population are with high angiographic incidence of myocardial bridges (MB's), when compared with other population in India. We observed more lengthy bridges which may cause luminal reduction of coronary vessel and myocardial ischemia (MI), we also observed higher incidence of MB’s in male patients but systolic luminal reduction is more in female patients then in males. These observations suggest that the risk of MI will be more for the female patients with MB’s.
KEY WORDS: Angiogram, Myocardial bridge (MB), Milking effect, Left anterior descending (LAD).


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Sujatha. M, V. Subhadra Devi, C. S. S. Raju, B. Yugandhar, Nagaraju. ANGIOGRAPHIC ASPECTS OF MYOCARDIAL BRIDGES. Int J Anat Res 2015;3(4):1689-1696. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2015.318




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