Type of Article : Orginal Research
Year: 2015 | Volume 3 | Issue 3 | Page No. 1321-1325
Date of Publication: 31-08-2015
MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF SUPRATROCHLEAR FORAMEN OF HUMERUS AND ITS CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
Arunkumar K R *1, Manoranjitham R 2, Raviraj K 3, Dhanalakshmi V 4.
*1 Asst. Professor of Anatomy, Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital, Tamilnadu, India.
2 Associate Professor of Anatomy, Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital, Tamilnadu, India.
3 Asst. Professor of Anatomy, Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital, Tamilnadu, India.
4 Asst. Professor of Anatomy, Govt. Thoothukudi Medical College, Tamilnadu, India.
Address: Dr. Arunkumar K R, Asst. Professor of Anatomy, Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital, Siruvachur Post, Perambalur - 621212, Tamilnadu, India.
Background: The supratrochlear foramen (STF), alternatively termed septal aperture of humerus is a deficit of the bony septum in the distal end of humerus that separates the coronoid fossa from the olecranon fossa. The study is focused on the STF owing to its significance in the preoperative planning of supracondylar fractures of humerus. The humerus with STF has narrow medullary canal so ante grade route is advised for nailing supracondylar fractures in humerus with STF.
Materials: This study was conducted on 355 dry human humeri belonging to south Indian race. Results: The supratrochlear foramen was present in 76 bones (21.4%). The incidence of STF was more on the left side (23.3%) than the right side (19.6%). The transverse and vertical diameters of STF were measured using digital Vernier caliper. The mean transverse diameter on right side was 5.67 ± 1.71 mm and 5.39 ± 1.57 mm on left side. The mean vertical diameter was 3.9 ± 1.32 mm on right side and 3.84 ± 1.20 mm on left side. Various shapes of STF were noted among which oval shape was maximum. The translucent septum was frequently found more on the right side (56.3%).
Conclusions: The STF may be mistakenly interpreted as a cyst or tumors in X rays. Besides its anthropological interest, the knowledge of STF will be helpful for orthopedic surgeons and radiologists.
KEY WORDS: Humerus, Supratrochlear foramen, intramedullary nailing, septal aperture.
- Bryce.T.H. Quain’s Elements of Anatomy. Volume IV. Part 1. Eleventh edition. Longmans, Green and co. London;1915:144
- Hirsh, S.I. (1927). Cited in Morton, S. H., & Crysler, W. E., Osteochondritis dissecans of the supratrochlear septum. Journal of Bone Joint Surgery 27(A) 12–24.
- Kate B.R. and Dubey P.N. A note on the septal apertures in the humerus of Central Indians. E. Anthropol. 1970;33:105–110.
- Paraskevas GK, Papaziogas B, Tzaveas A, Giaglis G, Kitsoulis P, Natsis K. The supratrochlear foramen of the humerus and its relation to the medullary canal: a potential surgical application. Med Sci Monit. 2010 April;16(4):119-123.
- Akpinar F, Aydinlioglu A, Tosun N, Dogan A, Tuncay I, Unal O. A morphometric study on the humerus for intramedullary fixation. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2003;199:35-42.
- Nayak SR, Das S, Krishnamurthy A, Prabhu LV, Potu BK. Supratrochlear foramen of the humerus: An anatomico-radiological study with clinical implications. 2009;114(2):90-94.
- Kumar Ajay, Sharma Anu, Singh Poonam. A Study of Supratrochlear Foramen of Humerus with its Clinical Implications. The Clinical Researcher. 2010;2(2):58-60.
- Hardlicka A. The humerus septal apertures. Anthropologie, X (Prague) 1932; 34-96.
- Haziroglu RM, Ozer M. A supratrochlear foramen in the humerus of cattle. Anat Histol Embryol. 1990;19:106-108.
- Sunday OO, Olusegun OS, Oluwabunmi BM. The Supratrochlear Foramen of the Humerus: Implications for intramedullary nailing in distal Humerus. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2014;4(7):136-139
- Desmoulins (1826). Cited by Comas J. In manual of physical Anthropology.Thomas C. USA.1960:421.
- Diwan RK, Rani A, Anita R, Chopra J, Srivastava AK, Sharma PK, Verma RK, Pankaj AK. Incidence of Supratrochlear foramen of Humerus in North Indian Population. Biomedical Research 2013;24 (1):142-145.
- Mahajan A, Batra APS, Seema, Khurana BS. Supratrochlear foramen; study of humerus in North Indians. Professional Med J Mar 2011;18(1):128-132.
- Patel SV, Sutaria LK, Nayak TV, Kanjiya DP, Patel BM, Aterkar SH. Morphometric study of supratrochlear foramen of humerus. International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research. 2013;04(2):89-92.
- Jadhav M, Tawte A, Pawar P, Mane S. Anatomical study of Supratrochlear foramen of Humerus. J Res Med Den Sci 2013;1(2):33-35.
- Jaswinder Kaur, Zora Singh. Supratrochlear Foramen of Humerus – A Morphometric Study. Indian Journal of Basic & Applied Medical Research; June 2013: Issue-7, Vol.-2, P. 651-654.
- Varlam H., Antohe D.S., Chistol R.O. Supracondylar process and supratrochlear foramen of the humerus. Morphologie. 2005; 89: 121-125.
- Paraskevas GK, Natsis K, Anastasopoulos N, Ioannidis O,Kitsoulis P. Humeral septal aperture associated with supracondylar process: a case report and review of the literature. Italian Journal of Anatomy. 2012; 117(3): 135-141.
- Lamb DS. The olecranon perforation.Am Anthropologist 1890; 3:159-174.
- Glanville E.V. Perforation of the coronoid-olecranon septum. humero-ulnar relationships in Netherlands and African populations. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 1967;26: 85-92
- Akabori E. Septal aperture in the humerus in Japanese and in Koreans. Am. J. Phys. Anthropology. 1934;18:395-401.
- Kuhn J.E., Lois D.S., Loder R.T. (1995) Divergent single-column fractures of the distal part of the humerus. J. Bone Joint Surg. 77: 538-542.
- Sahajpal D.T., Pichora D. Septal aperture: an anatomic variant predisposing to bilateral low-energy fractures of the distal humerus. Can. J. Surg. 2006;49: 363-364.
- Bryan R.S. & Bickel W.H. “T” Condylar fractures of distal humerus. Journal of trauma-injury infection and critical care. 1971;11(10): 830-835.
- De Wilde V, De Maeseneer M, Lenchik L, Van Roy P, Beeckman P, Osteaux M. Normal osseous variants presenting as cystic or lucent areas on radiography and CT imaging: A pictorial overview. Eur. J. Radiol.2004; 51: 77-84.
- Benfer RA, Mckern TW. The correlation of bone robusticity with the perforation of the coronoid - olecranon septum in the humerus of man. Am J Phy Anthropol. 1966;24:247-252.
- Ozturk A, Kutlu C, Bayraktar B, Zafer ARI, Sahinoglu K. The Supratrochlear foramen in the humerus (Anatomical study). St.Tp Fak. Mecmuas. 2000;63:72-76.
- Akabori.E. Septal apertures in the humerus in Japanese, Ainu and Koreans. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1934;18:395-400.
- Chatterjee KP. The incidence of perforation of olecranon fossa in the humerus among Indians. Eastern Anthropologist. 1968;21:270-284.
- Singhal S and Rao V. Supratrochlear foramen of the humerus. Anatomical Science International. 2007;82:105-107.
Arunkumar K R, Manoranjitham R, Raviraj K, Dhanalakshmi V. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF SUPRATROCHLEAR FORAMEN OF HUMERUS AND ITS CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS. Int J Anat Res 2015;3(3):1321-1325. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2015.233