Type of Article : Original Research
Year: 2015 | Volume 3 | Issue 2 | Page No. 1173-1178
Date of Publication: 30-06-2015
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN CEREBRAL CORTEX, HIPPOCAMPUS, CEREBELLUM, PONS & MEDULLA OF THE ALBINO RAT DUE TO LEAD TOXICITY
Syed Zulfiqar Naqi.
Assistant Professor, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ajman University of Science & Technology, Ajman, UAE.
Address: Dr. Syed Zulfiqar Naqi, Assistant Professor, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ajman University of Science and Technology, PO BOX 18486, Ajman, UAE.
Introduction: Lead, a heavy metal is well known for its toxic effects on the central nervous system. Clinically, overall effects of lead on different organ system are called plumbism. Diverse writing can be seen on the subject, but rarely there has been a comparison in any of these writings on different parts within the brain of the changes happening as the result of lead exposure. This study was taken up to draw a comparison and correlation of damaging effects on different parts of brain at microscopic level as a result of lead toxicity so that the affected elements in the tissue can be further connected to the histopathological and clinical outcomes of the lead toxicity.
Materials and Methods: To conduct the study albino rats of Charles Foster strain were administered orally with 4% lead acetate in drinking water. The behavioral and clinical changes during the period of lead administration were closely observed that extended from irritability, agitation and aggressive behavior in the beginning to drastic fall in activity, indifference towards varieties of stimulus and severe motor deficit. At the end of an average of 17 days the rats were sacrificed for both gross and microscopic examination of brain for changes in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, pons & medulla. The elements of the tissue observable as per the selected staining were the neurons, fibers, glia & the vessels.
Results: The changes showed up with similarities between different parts as the shrinkage of neurons, damaged fibers, stunting of cell processes and increased glial cell population, whereas there were dissimilarities with regards to the extent of shrinkage of neuron and distribution of perineuronal spaces, vacuoles & the glial cells.
Discussion and Conclusion: The comparative picture of the changes as a result of lead exposure showed widespread damage to nearly all the elements of the nervous tissue with reactive changes e.g. gliosis, and variations in the extend of changes in the selected brain parts. As a result these changes observed can be of used to correlate in the overall outcome of plumbism in relation to the functions of different parts of the brain.
KEY WORDS: Lead neurotoxicity, albino rats, Charles Foster, lead acetate, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, pons, medulla, pyramidal cells, Purkinje cells, CA1.
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Syed Zulfiqar Naqi. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN CEREBRAL CORTEX, HIPPOCAMPUS, CEREBELLUM, PONS & MEDULLA OF THE ALBINO RAT DUE TO LEAD TOXICITY. Int J Anat Res 2015;3(2):1173-1178. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2015.194