International Journal of Anatomy and Research

Welcome to International Journal of Anatomy and Research





Type of Article : Original

Year: 2015 | Volume 3 | Issue 1 | Page No. 889-894

Date of Publication: 28-02-2015



Pankaj Saini *1, Jai Prakash Pankaj 2, Anjali Jain 3, Gyan Chand Agarwal 4.

*1 Ph.D. scholar, Department of Anatomy, Sawai Man Singh Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
2 2nd Year resident, Department of Community Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
3 Assistant professor, Department of Community Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
4 Professor & Head, Department of Anatomy, Pacific Medical College, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India.

Address: Pankaj Saini, 1/466, Manglam Apartment, Chitrakoot Scheme, Vaishali Nagar, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Pin 302021, Mobile No. +919414663090


Background: The fetus, placenta and mother constitute a triad of contributors to pregnancy outcome. When pregnancy is complicated by a medical problem like, diabetes mellitus which affects maternal health, architecture and functions of the placenta may even jeopardize the fetal normalcy. The placenta being the bridge between maternal and fetal activities, considered as a window through which maternal dysfunctions and their impacts on fetal well being can be understood.
Aim: The aim was to study gross morphology of placentae of women with gestational diabetes mellitus and to compare the results with normal pregnancies.
Methods: It was an observational study. After due approval from institutional ethics committee, 40 placentae from pregnant women clinically diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus and 40 placentae from uncomplicated normal pregnant women were collected from labour room and operation theatre of department of obstetrics and gynaecology of government medical college hospital in Jaipur (Rajasthan). Confirmed gestational diabetic cases were selected purposively while controls were taken sequentially. Gross morphological features of each placenta were recorded. The statistical methods used were unpaired ‘t’ test and chi square test.
Results: The results showed that weight, diameter, surface area, central thickness and number of cotyledons of placentae from diabetic mothers were significantly more than placentae from normal uncomplicated pregnancies, while no significant differences were observed in shape and site of umbilical cord insertion.
Conclusion: The gross morphology of placentae with gestational diabetes mellitus significantly differs from normal pregnancies which may be associated with alteration in physiological functioning of placenta and ultimately fetal outcome.
KEY WORDS: Gestational diabetes mellitus, morphology, placenta, pregnancy.


  1. Metzger BE, Coustan DR, editors. Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care 21 (Suppl 2). 1998: B1–B167.
  2. Kumar A, Goel MK, Jain RB, Khanna P, Chaudhary V. India towards diabetes control: Key issues. Australas Med J. 2013; 6(10):524-531.
  3. Saxena R. Bedside obstetrics and gynaecology. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd; 2010. Chapter 13, Gestational Diabetes. p.234-255.
  4. Kalra P, Kachhwaha CP, Singh HV. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and its outcome in western Rajasthan. Indian J Endocr Metab. 2013; 17(4):677-680.
  5. Rajput R, Yadav Y, Nanda S, Rajput M. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors at a tertiary care hospital in Haryana. Indian J Med Res. 2013 Apr; 137:728-733.
  6. Fox H, Neil J, editors. Pathology of the placenta. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2007.
  7. Langostan C, Kaplan C, Macperson T, Manci E, Peevy K, Clarck B. Practice guidelines for examination of placenta. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1997; 121:449-472.
  8. Teasdale F. Gestational changes in the functional structure of the human placenta in class relation to fetal growth: a morphometric study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1980; 137: 560-8.
  9. Fox H. Pathology of the placenta in maternal diabetes mellitus. Obstet Gynecol. 1969; 34:792-8.
  10. Benirschke K. The placenta: How to examine it and what you can learn. Contemp Obst and Gynaecol. 1981; 17:117-119.
  11. Hargitai B, Marton T, Cox BM. Examination of human placenta. J clin Pathol. 2004; 57:785-792.
  12. Ashfaq M, Janjua MZ, Channa MA. Effect of gestational diabetes and maternal hypertension on gross morphology of placenta. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2005; 17(1):44-47.
  13. Verma R, Mishra S, Kaul JM. Cellular changes in the placenta in pregnancies complicated with diabetes. Int J Morphol. 2010; 28(1):259-264.
  14. Akhter F, Banu LA, Ferdausi R. Effect of gestational diabetes mellitus on gross morphological structure of preterm placenta. Bangladesh J Anat. 2010; 8(1):34-38.
  15. Chowdhury AHMMM, Shamim KM, Ferdousi R, Begum JA, Banu LA. A comparative study of effects of different grades of maternal established diabetes mellitus on placental and neonatal weight. Bangladesh J Anat. 2011; 9(1):53-58.
  16. Saha S, Biswas S, Mitra D, Adhikari A, Saha C. Histologic and morphometric study of human placenta in gestational diabetes mellitus. Ital J Anat Embryol. 2014; 119(1):1-9.
  17. Queenan JT. Management of high risk pregnancy. 4th ed. England: Blackwell science; 1999; 261-70.


Pankaj Saini, Jai Prakash Pankaj, Anjali Jain, Gyan Chand Agarwal. EFFECT OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS ON GROSS MORPHOLOGY OF PLACENTA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY. Int J Anat Res 2015;3(1):889-894. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2015.111




Volume 1 (2013)

Volume 2 (2014)

Volume 3 (2015)

Submit Manuscript