International Journal of Anatomy and Research

Welcome to International Journal of Anatomy and Research





Type of Article : Original Article

Year: 2014 | Volume 2 | Issue 4 | Page No. 752-756

Date of Publication: 31-12-2014

DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2014.540


Hemlata Sharma *1, Manoj Kumar Sharma 2, Ghanshyam Gupta 3.

*1 Lecturer, Department of Anatomy, Jhalawar Medical College, Jhalawar (Rajasthan), India.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Jhalawar Medical College, Jhalawar (Rajasthan), India.
3 Professor & Head, Department Of Anatomy, Jhalawar Medical College, Jhalawar (Rajasthan), India.

Address: Mrs. Hemlata Sharma, W/O Dr. Manoj Kumar Sharma, III/5, Staff Quarters, Doctors Colony, Behind Ima Hall, Medical College Campus, Jhalawar Medical College, Jhalawar-326001(Rajasthan), India.


Introduction: It is appear to be increasing in incidence over part couple of decades in India and western world due to increased intake of fatty and high calorie diet and increased consumption of alcohol. Cholecystits and cholelithiasis are very common particularly in fatty, fertile and female of forty to fifty. Various sign and symptoms like severe pain in Murphy’s point in right upper quadrant of abdomen , bilious vomiting , mild to moderate increase in temperature , obstructive jaundice , loss of appetite are present in these disease .
Aim of study: The purpose of the present study is to compare the histological changes in the wall of human gall bladder in Cholecystits and cholelithiasis.
Material and methods:  Gallbladder of 100 patients of both sexes, aged between 12 years to 80 years was taken for present research work who underwent cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis with cholecystits. The gall bladder biopsy was processed for histopathological examination. Hemotoxyllin and eosin staining was done for microscopic observations.
Results: The observations showed focal and diffused ulceration of mucosa and inflammatory cells infiltrate in sub epithelial layers. Fibrosis and thickening of the perimuscular layer with muscle hypertrophy were observed in maximum cases. The congestion of blood vessels and hemorrhage were also noted.
Discussion: The conclusion of study is to demonstrate predominate alteration in specific layer of diseased gallbladder and to compare it with each other and normal one.
Once histopathological changes occur they alter the normal tissue pattern and can induce the carcinogenic progression and metastasis. The advantage of this work is early differential diagnosis between the two and two give effective treatment as early as possible.
KEYWORDS:  Gallbladder, Gallstone disease, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, Inflammation, Epithelial heperplasia, Metaplasia, Rokitansky aschoff sinus.


  1. Mohamed Zaki, Abdullah AI-Rafeidi. Histological changes in the human gallbladder epithelium associated with gallstones. Omen Medical Journal 2009;24(4):8-13.
  2. H.Mohan. Extra biliary apparatus-gall bladder (text book of pathology. chapter 19, 5th edition, 658-664 , 2005 .
  3. M C Carey. Pathogenesis of gallstones. Am J. Surg, 1993;165:410.
  4. Pani J.P, Pandey M S ,Pani D S, Maderakar M N and Katti H K. Estimation of predominate histologic alterations in cholecystitis and cholithiasis of human gallbladder an analytical and statistical study through the approach of routine histochemistry. IOSR Journal of Dental  and Medical Sciences, 2013;6(6):35-43.
  5. Kuver R,Klinkspoor JH, Osborne WR, Lee SP. Mucous granule exocytosis and CFTR expression in gallbladder epithelium. Glycobiology, 2000;10:149-157.
  6. Afdhal NH. Cholesterol crystal nucleation: a decade long search for the missing link in gallbladder pathogenesis. Hepatology, 1990;11:669-702.
  7. Kim HJ, Kim JS, Kim KO, park KH, Kim JY et al. expression of MUC3 ,MUC5A, MUC6 and epidermal growth factor receptor in gallbladder epithelium according to gallstone composition. Korean Journal Gastroenterol, 2003;42: 330-336.
  8. Velanovich VF. Biliary dyskinesia and biliary crystals: a prospective study. Am J Surg. 1997;63:69-73.
  9. Lange K, Gottschalk M, Gallbladder contractility in early stages of lithogenesis in the lithogenic fed guinea pig. Z. Gastroenterol, 1995;139:179-191.
  10. Baig S J ,Biswas S, Das S, Basu K and Chattopadhyay. Histopathological changes in gallbladder mucosa in cholelithiasis: correlation with chemical composition of gallstones. Trop. Gastroenterol, 2001;23:25-27.
  11. Schwartz S.I, W.A. Dale. primary sclerosing cholangitis: A review and report of six cases. Arch Surg, 1958;77:350-439.
  12.  Tami Yama . H , H . Yamigiwa. Intestinal metaplasia- Dysplasia carcinoma sequence of the gall bladder. Acta Pathol, 1987;36:989-997.
  13. Jaferry. G P , K.B Shilkin , S. Carrello et al. histological and immunohistochemical study of gall bladder lesion in primary sclerosing cholangitis. Gut, 1991;32:424-429.
  14. A. Badke , B. Bohm , W. Schwenk et al. histological changes of gall bladder and liver parenchyma in symptomatic cholelithiasis. Dtsch Med Wschr 1993;112(22):809-813.
  15. A. Csendes , F. Maluenda , G. Smoke et al. Histological findings of gall bladder mucosa in 95 control subjects and 80 patients with asymptomatic gall stones. Journal of Digestive diseases and sciences, 1998;43:931-934.

Hemlata Sharma, Manoj Kumar Sharma, Ghanshyam Gupta. EVALUATION OF HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN CHRONIC CHOLECYSTITIS AND CHOLELITHIASIS OF HUMAN GALLBLADDER. Int J Anat Res 2014;2(4):752-756. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2014.540




Volume 1 (2013)

Volume 2 (2014)

Submit Manuscript